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Welcome to Journal of The Chemical Society Of Pakistan

Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan (JCSP) is a bimonthly Journal which publishes results of original, unpublished research work and review articles in all fields of Chemistry.

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A Facile Approach of Preparing Nickel Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon Surface and its Catalytic Activities on Reducing of Nitroaromatics

XIANG LIU, HEMING CHENG

A facile approach of preparing nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) on porous silicon (PSi) surface and the catalysis towards reduction of nitroaromatics are depicted in this work in detail. When the PSi chip was immersed in the mixture of 40 % ammonium fluoride and 0.02 M nickel sulfate solutions with volume ratio of 1:1 at 60°C for 15 min, a large number of Ni NPs were generated on PSi surface, which exhibited high catalytic activities on reducing nitro groups of aromatics in the presence of sodium borohydride at ambient temperature. A suggested mechanism of Ni NPs generation on PSi surface was put forward according to theoretical and experimental analyses. The resultant Ni NPs on PSi surface were demonstrated with scanning electron microscopy and the reducing reactions are monitored with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy
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Critical Intermolecular Forces: A New Physical Insight for the Formation of Wormlike Micelles

RABAH ALI KHALIL, FAHAD JUMAAH HAMMAD

Up to present date, no obvious and reasonable theoretical approach interpreting the formation of worm- or thread-like micelles together with the accompanying sharp change in the rheological properties. Consequently, systems of binary and ternary mixtures of 3 wt% anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants have been investigated at different temperatures. The mixture of anionic [sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)] and cationic [cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)] surfactants exhibits a remarkable high viscosity peak at weight ratio of 80/20 CTAB/SDS. No wormlike micelles have been detected for binary mixtures of anionic- nonionic (Triton-X 100) nor for ternary mixtures of SDS/CTAB/Triton-X 100 surfactants. Approximate relations have been introduced for evaluating the thermodynamic change from spherical to one-dimensional supramolecular aggregate. Conductivity measurements have been performed for supporting the present investigation. The results reveal a new physical insight called Critical Intermolecular Forces (CIF), which is responsible for the transition phenomenon from three to one-dimensional shape of aggregate. It has been concluded that the suggested theory of CIF plays as a powerful tool in understanding not only the transition state towards wormlike micelles together with the associated significant increasing in solution viscosity, but also for helping researchers who are interested in exploring any kind of new wormlike systems
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Comparative Anti-glycation and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Studies of Metabolite, 9,12-Dihydroxy-9,10-pregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione with Dydrogesterone

AZIZUDDIN, SAIMA RASHEED, SUAD NAHEED, MUHAMMAD IQBAL CHOUDHARY

Dydrogesterone (1) and its microbial hydroxylated metabolite 9,12-dihydroxy-9,10-pregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione (2) were screened for their anti-glycation and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Dydrogesterone (1) showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 95.6±1.3µM) when compared with 1-deoxynojirimycin used as standard (IC50 = 440.99±0.01 µM), while compound 2 was found to be weak inhibitor (IC50 = 824.3±6.1 µM). When evaluated for anti-glycation activities, both compounds 1 and 2 were inactive
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Effect of Wheat Straw Pretreatments and Glue Formulations on Particle Board Properties

SIDRA JABEEN, SHAHID NAVEED, SANA YOUSAF AND NAVEED RAMZAN

In this paper, the effect of wheat straw (WS) pretreatments and glue formulations on mechanical (i.e. Compressive Strength (CS) and Impact Strength (IS)) and water resistance properties (i.e. Thickness Swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA)) of particle board have been investigated and the results have been compared with conventional wooden particleboard . Wheat straw was treated with steam available at 110°C and 20 psig, for the retention time of 5, 10 & 15 min. The solution of 10% HCl was also used for removing the lignin. Particleboard was prepared by bonding treated WS with four types of glue recipes of synthetic and natural binders like urea formaldehyde (UF), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), corn flour (CF) and wheat flour (WF). The particle board was formed at the hydraulic pressure and temperature of 2800 psig and 80°C respectively. It was observed that WS particleboard has low mechanical strength and high water resistance in comparison with conventional board. The particle board prepared with HCl cured wheat straw and glue having high urea formaldehyde and corn flour has higher CS and IS as well as low TS and WA. It may be concluded that wheat straw is a good substitute of wood for particle board while using HCl as a modifying chemical and strong binders like urea formaldehyde and corn flour.
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Evaluation of Thermal Stability of Some Organically Modified Clays

MOHAMMAD SHAKIRULLAH, IMTIAZ AHMAD, MUHAMMAD ISHAQ AND HAMEED ULLAH

The paper is focused on the influence of some organic modifiers on the thermal stability of the clay-organic intercalates. The organic modifiers used were rubber, coal, thermosetting plastic, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride Melt intercalation procedure was used. Modification with organic modifiers was performed at 400 oC. TG-DTA study was performed to evaluate the thermal stability of the resultant intercalates. Thermal properties were improved significantly in case of organically modified clay samples. Among the modifiers used, poly styrene proved very effective in case of crude clay while in case of pre baked clay, intercalation with rubber caused significant improvement in thermal stability. Thus, such intercalations are suggested to be effective if the clays under study are to be used at elevated temperature.
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Effect of Template on Chiral Separation of Phenylalanine using Molecularly Imprinted Membrane in Aqueous Medium

NOAMAN UL HAQ, JOONG KON PARK

L-Phenylalanine (L-Phe) and D-Phenylalanine (D-Phe) imprinted poly [(acrylonitrile)-co-(acrylic acid)] membranes were prepared by wet phase inversion method for chiral separation. The chiral separation ability of molecularly imprinted copolymer membranes towards the underivatized D,L-Phe aqueous mixture was evaluated by ultrafiltration experiment. The novel membranes show continuous permselectivity but chiral resolution ability of L-Phe imprinted membrane was much better than that of D-Phe. It was observed that both membranes simultaneously, selectively reject, selectively adsorbed and selectively permeate solute. The achieved adsorption selectivities of L-Phe imprinted membrane [Ads]L and D-Phe imprinted membrane [Ads]D were 2.6 and 2.40 respectively. Permselectivity of L-Phe imprinted membrane [Perm]L was 2.56 while D-Phe imprinted membrane’s permselectivity [Perm]D was 2.03. The rejection selectivities of L-Phe and D-Phe imprinted membranes were [Rej]L=0.32 and [Rej]D =0.28 respectively
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Synthesis of Potent Antibacterial Agents Derived f

Aziz-Ur-Rehman, Hira Khalid, Muhammad Athar Abbasi, Samreen Gul, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Irshad Ahmad Shafia Arshad

Due to pharmacological importance of 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles, a new series of S-substituted derivatives of 5-[1-(phenylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl]-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-thiol (4a-v) was synthesized. The reaction of benzenesulfonyl chloride with ethyl isonipecotate yielded ethyl 1-(phenylsulfonyl)piperidine-4-carboxylate (1), which further converted into 1-(Phenylsulfonyl) piperidine-4-carbohydrazide (2) and 5-[1-(phenylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl]-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-thiol (3) in the presence of hydrazine hydrate and CS2 along with KOH respectively. The target compounds (4a-v) were synthesized by the reaction of compound 3 with different electrophiles in the presence of DMF and sodium hydride. The structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and it was observed that the electrophilic substitution influenced significantly for the antibacterial activity from moderate to excellent level.
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Protonation Reaction of Anion Radicals of some Dinitroaromatics in Hexamethylphosphortriamide (HMPA)

FARZANA HANIF, GHAZALA YASMEEN, RASHIDA PERVEEN MUHAMMAD AAMIR

Cyclic voltammeric method has been employed to investigate the protonation of anion radicals of 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4- dinitrobenzenes in Hexamethylphosphortriamide (HMPA) in the temperature range 5°C, 15°C, 25°C and 35°C. Glassy carbon electrode and hanging mercury drop electrode are used as working electrodes. Benzoic acid and salicylic acid are used as protonating agents. Homogeneous rate constant is calculated by using Nicholson and Shain equation. The position of nucleophilic attack in dinitrobenzenes has been investigated by calculation of charge densities using MNDO and SCF-UHF molecular orbital methods. The heterogeneous rate constant ks,h for the first reduction process in dinitrobenzenes is determined by digital simulation of the cyclic voltammograms
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Quantification of Pure Refined Olive Oil Adulterant in Extra Virgin Olive Oil using Diamond Cell ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

AFTAB AHMED KANDHRO, RUBINA SALEEM, ABDUL HAFEEZ LAGHARI, RAZIA SULTANA, MAHROZ AHMED KHAN, DILDAR HUSSAIN MEMON

The present study depicts spectroscopic method development to deliver a rapid, simple and reproducible quantification of pure refined olive oil (PROO) adulterant in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) using partial least square (PLS) regression (statistical parameter). Single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was choice in the developed method. Blended standards of PROO and EVOO were obtained by their weight by weight percentage and the values were used to construct calibration curves for quantification. The optimum regression values (i.e. >0.99) were achieved using the combined frequencies of 3105-2761, 1838-1687, and 1482-440 cm-1 with regression coefficients (R2) 0.99718 and achieved residual mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) 1.40% w/w. To determine the suitability of developed method principal component spectra (PCS) diagnostic was also used. The results of the present study prove that the developed methods reported in preceding studies can be good option for more rapid and accurate determination of PROO adulteration in EVOO
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N-Substituted Derivatives of 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-yl-2-sulfanyl acetamide as Valuable Bioactive Compounds

AZIZ-UR-REHMAN, SAMREEN GUL, MUHAMMAD ATHAR ABBASI, KHADIJA NAFEESA, ASIA SIDDIQA, MUHAMMAD SHAHID, ZINAYYERA SUBHANI

In the presented work, a new series of N-substituted derivatives of 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-yl-2-sulfanyl acetamide has been synthesized. The synthesis was carried out by converting 4-chlorobenzoic acid (1) into ethyl 4-chlorobenzoate (2), 4-chlorobenzohydrazide (3) and then 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-thiol (4) respectively. The target compounds 6a-o were synthesized by reaction of compound 4 with equimolar ratios of different N-alkyl/aryl substituted 2-bromoacetamide (5a-o) in the presence of DMF and sodium hydride (NaH). The structure elucidation of all the synthesized compounds was carried out by EI-MS, IR and 1H-NMR. The compounds were also screened for antimicrobial & hemolytic activity and most of them were found active against the selected microbial species at variable extent relative to reference standards. But 6f and 6o were the active against the selected panel of microbes and former was most potent one. This series showed less toxicity and may consider for further biological screening and application trial except 6g and 6j, possessing higher cytotoxicity.
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