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Welcome to Journal of The Chemical Society Of Pakistan

Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan (JCSP) is a bimonthly Journal which publishes results of original, unpublished research work and review articles in all fields of Chemistry.

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A Facile Approach of Preparing Nickel Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon Surface and its Catalytic Activities on Reducing of Nitroaromatics

XIANG LIU, HEMING CHENG

A facile approach of preparing nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) on porous silicon (PSi) surface and the catalysis towards reduction of nitroaromatics are depicted in this work in detail. When the PSi chip was immersed in the mixture of 40 % ammonium fluoride and 0.02 M nickel sulfate solutions with volume ratio of 1:1 at 60°C for 15 min, a large number of Ni NPs were generated on PSi surface, which exhibited high catalytic activities on reducing nitro groups of aromatics in the presence of sodium borohydride at ambient temperature. A suggested mechanism of Ni NPs generation on PSi surface was put forward according to theoretical and experimental analyses. The resultant Ni NPs on PSi surface were demonstrated with scanning electron microscopy and the reducing reactions are monitored with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy
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Critical Intermolecular Forces: A New Physical Insight for the Formation of Wormlike Micelles

RABAH ALI KHALIL, FAHAD JUMAAH HAMMAD

Up to present date, no obvious and reasonable theoretical approach interpreting the formation of worm- or thread-like micelles together with the accompanying sharp change in the rheological properties. Consequently, systems of binary and ternary mixtures of 3 wt% anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants have been investigated at different temperatures. The mixture of anionic [sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)] and cationic [cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)] surfactants exhibits a remarkable high viscosity peak at weight ratio of 80/20 CTAB/SDS. No wormlike micelles have been detected for binary mixtures of anionic- nonionic (Triton-X 100) nor for ternary mixtures of SDS/CTAB/Triton-X 100 surfactants. Approximate relations have been introduced for evaluating the thermodynamic change from spherical to one-dimensional supramolecular aggregate. Conductivity measurements have been performed for supporting the present investigation. The results reveal a new physical insight called Critical Intermolecular Forces (CIF), which is responsible for the transition phenomenon from three to one-dimensional shape of aggregate. It has been concluded that the suggested theory of CIF plays as a powerful tool in understanding not only the transition state towards wormlike micelles together with the associated significant increasing in solution viscosity, but also for helping researchers who are interested in exploring any kind of new wormlike systems
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Comparative Anti-glycation and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Studies of Metabolite, 9,12-Dihydroxy-9,10-pregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione with Dydrogesterone

AZIZUDDIN, SAIMA RASHEED, SUAD NAHEED, MUHAMMAD IQBAL CHOUDHARY

Dydrogesterone (1) and its microbial hydroxylated metabolite 9,12-dihydroxy-9,10-pregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione (2) were screened for their anti-glycation and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Dydrogesterone (1) showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 95.6±1.3µM) when compared with 1-deoxynojirimycin used as standard (IC50 = 440.99±0.01 µM), while compound 2 was found to be weak inhibitor (IC50 = 824.3±6.1 µM). When evaluated for anti-glycation activities, both compounds 1 and 2 were inactive
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Effect of Wheat Straw Pretreatments and Glue Formulations on Particle Board Properties

SIDRA JABEEN, SHAHID NAVEED, SANA YOUSAF AND NAVEED RAMZAN

In this paper, the effect of wheat straw (WS) pretreatments and glue formulations on mechanical (i.e. Compressive Strength (CS) and Impact Strength (IS)) and water resistance properties (i.e. Thickness Swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA)) of particle board have been investigated and the results have been compared with conventional wooden particleboard . Wheat straw was treated with steam available at 110°C and 20 psig, for the retention time of 5, 10 & 15 min. The solution of 10% HCl was also used for removing the lignin. Particleboard was prepared by bonding treated WS with four types of glue recipes of synthetic and natural binders like urea formaldehyde (UF), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), corn flour (CF) and wheat flour (WF). The particle board was formed at the hydraulic pressure and temperature of 2800 psig and 80°C respectively. It was observed that WS particleboard has low mechanical strength and high water resistance in comparison with conventional board. The particle board prepared with HCl cured wheat straw and glue having high urea formaldehyde and corn flour has higher CS and IS as well as low TS and WA. It may be concluded that wheat straw is a good substitute of wood for particle board while using HCl as a modifying chemical and strong binders like urea formaldehyde and corn flour.
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Evaluation of Thermal Stability of Some Organically Modified Clays

MOHAMMAD SHAKIRULLAH, IMTIAZ AHMAD, MUHAMMAD ISHAQ AND HAMEED ULLAH

The paper is focused on the influence of some organic modifiers on the thermal stability of the clay-organic intercalates. The organic modifiers used were rubber, coal, thermosetting plastic, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride Melt intercalation procedure was used. Modification with organic modifiers was performed at 400 oC. TG-DTA study was performed to evaluate the thermal stability of the resultant intercalates. Thermal properties were improved significantly in case of organically modified clay samples. Among the modifiers used, poly styrene proved very effective in case of crude clay while in case of pre baked clay, intercalation with rubber caused significant improvement in thermal stability. Thus, such intercalations are suggested to be effective if the clays under study are to be used at elevated temperature.
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Effect of Template on Chiral Separation of Phenylalanine using Molecularly Imprinted Membrane in Aqueous Medium

NOAMAN UL HAQ, JOONG KON PARK

L-Phenylalanine (L-Phe) and D-Phenylalanine (D-Phe) imprinted poly [(acrylonitrile)-co-(acrylic acid)] membranes were prepared by wet phase inversion method for chiral separation. The chiral separation ability of molecularly imprinted copolymer membranes towards the underivatized D,L-Phe aqueous mixture was evaluated by ultrafiltration experiment. The novel membranes show continuous permselectivity but chiral resolution ability of L-Phe imprinted membrane was much better than that of D-Phe. It was observed that both membranes simultaneously, selectively reject, selectively adsorbed and selectively permeate solute. The achieved adsorption selectivities of L-Phe imprinted membrane [Ads]L and D-Phe imprinted membrane [Ads]D were 2.6 and 2.40 respectively. Permselectivity of L-Phe imprinted membrane [Perm]L was 2.56 while D-Phe imprinted membrane’s permselectivity [Perm]D was 2.03. The rejection selectivities of L-Phe and D-Phe imprinted membranes were [Rej]L=0.32 and [Rej]D =0.28 respectively
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Protonation Reaction of Anion Radicals of some Dinitroaromatics in Hexamethylphosphortriamide (HMPA)

FARZANA HANIF, GHAZALA YASMEEN, RASHIDA PERVEEN MUHAMMAD AAMIR

Cyclic voltammeric method has been employed to investigate the protonation of anion radicals of 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4- dinitrobenzenes in Hexamethylphosphortriamide (HMPA) in the temperature range 5°C, 15°C, 25°C and 35°C. Glassy carbon electrode and hanging mercury drop electrode are used as working electrodes. Benzoic acid and salicylic acid are used as protonating agents. Homogeneous rate constant is calculated by using Nicholson and Shain equation. The position of nucleophilic attack in dinitrobenzenes has been investigated by calculation of charge densities using MNDO and SCF-UHF molecular orbital methods. The heterogeneous rate constant ks,h for the first reduction process in dinitrobenzenes is determined by digital simulation of the cyclic voltammograms
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Quantification of Pure Refined Olive Oil Adulterant in Extra Virgin Olive Oil using Diamond Cell ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

AFTAB AHMED KANDHRO, RUBINA SALEEM, ABDUL HAFEEZ LAGHARI, RAZIA SULTANA, MAHROZ AHMED KHAN, DILDAR HUSSAIN MEMON

The present study depicts spectroscopic method development to deliver a rapid, simple and reproducible quantification of pure refined olive oil (PROO) adulterant in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) using partial least square (PLS) regression (statistical parameter). Single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was choice in the developed method. Blended standards of PROO and EVOO were obtained by their weight by weight percentage and the values were used to construct calibration curves for quantification. The optimum regression values (i.e. >0.99) were achieved using the combined frequencies of 3105-2761, 1838-1687, and 1482-440 cm-1 with regression coefficients (R2) 0.99718 and achieved residual mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) 1.40% w/w. To determine the suitability of developed method principal component spectra (PCS) diagnostic was also used. The results of the present study prove that the developed methods reported in preceding studies can be good option for more rapid and accurate determination of PROO adulteration in EVOO
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Novel Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of Salicylamide and Ascorbic acid in their binary mixture

Wageih Ali, Hala El-sayed Zaazaa, Maha Mohamed Abdelrahman, Maimana Ahmed Magdy, Mohamed Abdelkawy

Simple, selective and precise four spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for quantitative determination of Salicylamide (SAD) and Ascorbic acid (ASC, Vitamin C) in their binary mixture. Method A is Area under curve spectrophotometry, in which the area under curve in the wavelength ranges 225-245 nm and 265-285 nm were selected for determination of SAD and ASC. Method B is based on dual wavelength spectrophotometry, where ASC can be determined by difference in absorbance at 249.8 and 285.8 nm. On the same way; SAD is measured by difference in absorbance at 240.4 and 286.4 nm. Method C utilizes isoabsorptive point spectrophotometry where total concentration of SAD and ASC was calculated at their isoabsorptive points at 246.4 and 287 nm, while SAD concentration alone can be determined by first derivative spectrophotometry (1D) at 315.4 nm, then ASC concentration can be determined by subtraction. Method D is ratio subtraction spectrophotometry, where ASC can be determined by dividing the spectrum of the mixture by the spectrum of the SAD (as a divisor) followed by subtracting the constant absorbance value of the plateau region, then finally multiplying the obtained spectrum by the spectrum of the divisor. The developed methods have been successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in different laboratory prepared mixtures and in their pharmaceutical formulation. Statistical comparison between the results obtained by applying the proposed methods and the reported HPLC method was done, and it was found that there was no significant difference between them regarding both accuracy and precision
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Reactivity Study of Silicon Electrode Modified by Grafting Using Electrochemical Reduction of Diazonium Salts

Abdelkader Kaiber, Mohammed Cherkaoui, Jean-Noel Chazalviel, Francois Ozanam

The hydrogenated surface of silicon is less used in various fields because of the chemical instability of the surface oxidation; the researchers believe that in the same areas to modify the surface by direct grafting through the establishment of a covalent silicon-carbon from the reaction of a chemical species on a surface. Different grafting methods are discovered can be implemented for the preparation of grafted surfaces, the choice by the electrochemical reactions allows direct from the hydrogenated surface. We studied the formation of the phenyl layer by electrochemical reduction of aryl diazonium salts (BF4-,+N2-ph-OCH3) on the electrode p-Si-H (111) in an aqueous medium (0.05M H2SO4 + HF 0.05M). The reduction of the organic layer is grafted confirmed by cyclic voltammetry peak around -0.3V/SCE. In-situ infrared spectroscopy (IR) analysis allows chemical functions present on the grafted to give the approach of this modification reaction mechanism surface.
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