VOLUME 31, NO3, JUN 2009
123
 
Recycling of Bagasse Ash in Cement Manufacturing and its Impact on Clinker Potential and Environmental Pollution

Noor ul Amin ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} In this investigation bagasse ash from sugar mills of North West Frontier Province (NWFP) has been used in the raw mix designing for high strength Portland cement as a raw material and subjected to clinkerization and cement formation. Different parameters of the resulting clinker and cement were studied and compared with the British and Pakistan standard specification. 5 % bagasse ash was found as the optimal limit to be blended and pulverized with other raw material prior to clinkerization which decreased the emission of carbon dioxide to the environment up to 1.73 %. Moreover it replaced 5 % clay from the raw meal.
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Biosorption of Hg (II) and Cd (II) from Waste Water by using Zea Mays Waste

Nadia Jamil ,

Corn straws and corn cobs (Zea Mays waste) have been successfully utilized as bio-sorbents for the removal of mercury (II) and cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions, respectively. The maximum removal efficiency of mercury (II) and cadmium (II) was found to be 86.9 % and 92 % respectively at optimum conditions. Effects of pH, contact time, shaking speed, initial concentration of metal ion and amount of adsorbent were studied for both the metal ions. Kinetic studies were performed to measure the time for attaining equilibrium and adsorption data were employed to different adsorption models.
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Raw Mix Designing and Clinkerization of High Strength Portland Cement with Bagasse Ash and its Impact on Clinker Moduli and Fuel Consumption

Noor ul Amin ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} This paper discusses the utilization of bagasse ash from the sugar mills of North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan in the raw mix designing for high strength Portland cement, and its impact on clinker moduli and fuel consumption. The resulting clinker and cement was found with in the British and Pakistan standard specifications. 5 % bagasse ash was found as the optimal limit to be blended and pulverized with other raw material prior to clinkerization which saved 6.46 % energy. Among the moduli modulus of alumina (MA), modulus of silica (MS) and lime saturation factor (LSF) were studied. It was found that with 5 % bagasse ash, all the moduli remained with in standards.
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Physicochemical Study of Bagasse and Bagasse Ash from the Sugar Industries of NWFP, Pakistan and Its Recycling in Cement Manufacturing

Mohammad Tahir Shah ,

Bagasse and bagasse ash, obtained from the local sugar mills of North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan, were analyzed for both physical and chemical parameters. Among the physical parameters, the moisture, ash contents, volatile matter, loss on ignition, and calorific value have been determined while the chemical constituents such as SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O, carbon and sulfur were also determined in both baggase and baggase ash. The physico-chemical characterization of baggase ash suggests that it can be used as a part of the cement admixture, which could be cost effective and environmentally sustainable
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Adsorption Studies of Cr (VI) on Rice Husk Ash (Rha)

Uzma Zafar ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} In the present investigation, the adsorption of Cr (VI) was studied by making use of batch-technique. Percentage adsorption was calculated for RHA-Chromium solution system as a function of i) contact time, ii) pH, iii) adsorbate concentration and iv) temperature. Adsorption is interpreted in terms of Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The value of ΔH0 was found to be-16.4708 KJ/mole. The desorption studies especially with 0.1M CaCl2 and 10 % HCl at given Chromium loadings on RHA give significant percent desorption of Cr (VI).
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Transition Metal Complexes of Some Biologically Active Ligands; Synthesis Characterization and Bioactivities

Saeed ur Rehman ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Transition/representative transition metals complexes of biologically active chelating agent 1,2-dipyrolodinoethane were synthesized and characterized through spectral and analytical data. The complexes are of the formula [M(L)X2]. Where (M = Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), Zn (II), Hg (II) and Cd (II) and X = Cl, Br, NO3). Tetrahedral geometry has been proposed to these metal complexes with the help of magnetic measurements, elemental analysis, chemical stoichiometry and spectroscopic data. Antibacterial activity of the ligand and its metal complexes were screened against Eschereschi coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulhari, Streptococcus pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus anthrax, Streptococcus fecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. Metal complexes were found to be active against Eschereschi coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulharis.
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The Structural Studies of Complexes of 1,3-di-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-2-Propanol

Saeed ur Rehman ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The ligand 1,3-di (1H- imidazol-1-y)l-2-propanol (DIPO) is a modified form of Diimidazolopropane (DIP) whose complexes with copper (II) and cobalt (II) have been prepared. The characterization of ligand as well as that of complexes has been done through mass, conductance, magnetic moments, nmr, ir, and UV/visible measurements and elemental analysis. These measurements indicate that DIPO enforces tetrahedral structure to the complexes of cobalt (II) and copper (II). TGA and DTA have also been carried out
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A Study to Evaluate Therapeutic properties of Minerals of Manghopir Hot Spring, Karach

Ameera Javed ,

European balneologists have extensively studied the therapeutic value of mineral water. Mineral springs with different mineral contents are recommended for various therapeutic uses. People have been using geothermal water for bathing and good health for many thousands of years. A mineral hot spring has greater than 1000 mg/L (ppm) of naturally dissolved solids. Hot mineral spring water contains elements like calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium as sulphates, bi-carbonates and chlorides, which are used externally to cure many diseases. Manghopir spring contain 38-84 mg/L calcium, 29-56 mg/L magnesium, 388-555 mg/L sodium, 411-599 mg/L chloride,186-442 mg/L sulphate, 10-25 mg/L potassium, and 1509-2188 mg/L total dissolved solids while the pH was in the range of 7.2-7.8. The temperature of Manghopir Euthermal hot spring remains constant ranging between 40 to 47 ºC.
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Rapid and Specific Spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC Methods for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits Juices and in Human Plasma

Muhammad Saeed Arayne ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Ascorbic acid (AA) is one of the most important water soluble vitamin in the human diet, present naturally in a wide range of foods, especially fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive and specific method for the determination of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) from a variety of sources like fresh fruits or from human plasma using spectrophotometric technique or by RP-HPLC. Initially, estimation of vitamin C was carried out spectrophotometrically as UV spectroscopy is a trusted technique to monitor small quantities of drugs and vitamins. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.05-100 mg/mL-1. In the second procedure, we attempted to separate and quantitate ascorbic acid from fruit juices as well as from human plasma by RP-HPLC with UV detection. This has been possible because of the diversity of columns and conditions of analysis available. Chromatographic separation was successfully achieved on a pre-packed Kromasil 100, C18 (5 mm 25 x 0.46) column using acetonitrile: water (60:40; v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.75 mL-min and effluent monitored at 265 nm. The assay was also linear over the concentration range of 0.05-100 mg/mL-1, with recovery ranging from 99.0-100.0 % and intra and inter day CV <3 % when applied to the analysis of ascorbic acid from fruit juice available in Pakistan at the time of study. Grape fruit, malta, mosami, sweetlemon, fruiter, lemon, lime, custard apple, orange, lemon, guava and papaya juice were found to be very rich in as ascorbic acid, while chikoo, pear, apricot, peach, carrot and some other fruits were found to be poor sources of ascorbic acid.
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Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Ground Water of Taluka Daur, District Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan, and its Impacts on Human Health

Muhammad Yar Khuhawar ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Ground water samples (38) collected from Taluka Daur, District Nawabshah were analyzed for their heavy metal concentration. The concentration of heavy metals were found in the ranges Cd 2-17 µg/L, Pb 6-53 µg/L, Zn 0-228 µg/L, Cu 0-99 µg/L, Ni 13-90 µg/L, Fe 75-1355 µg/L, Co 5-48 µg/L and Mn 1-517 µg/L. Eleven water samples out of 38 were found as safe for drinking purpose based on total dissolved salts (500 mg/L), but only two water samples were suitable for human consumption with respect to their metal concentrations. The water samples were found contaminated with toxic metals Pb and Cd. Among these metals Pb-Co, Fe-Zn, Mn-Cd, Cu-Zn and Ni-Cd showed a similarity index. Contamination index (Cd) for the metal ions examined was calculated at each sampling station. The results indicated 4 samples low (Cd < 1), 4 samples medium (Cd < 3) and 28 samples high (Cd > 3) contaminated.
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