VOLUME 31, NO1, FEB 2009
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Analysis of Dolomite of Balochistan (Pakistan) by Using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS), Simultaneous Differential Thermal Analysis (SDTA), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

ZIA ULHAQ FAROOQI ,SYED MOHSIN RAZA ,SHABBAR ATIQ ,KHALID MEHMOOD ,SALMA JABEEN ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} We deciphered new methods for calculation of thermodynamic parameters from SDTA, TGA & DSC techniques.  The stretching of ionic bonds between Mg++ and CO3-and Ca++ and CO3, respectively is conformed on TGA curve at a temperature of 427 °K. At 728 K, an ore of dolomite is decomposed due to release of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide gases and the left over substance is a mixture of MgO and CaO. The ionic bond breaking occurs at 723 °K. After this, there is reshuffling of ions due to which MgO and CaO are produced at 816 °K and 835 K, respectively. The chemists have to think about the chemical processes to separate MgO, a refractory material, from CaO, after baking dolomite upto about 840 °K.
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Effects of Various Buffers and Salt on Color Strength of Reactive Dye Sumifix 3RF

MUHAMMAD RAMZAN ADIL ,MUHAMMAD ABDUL QADIR ,KARAMAT MAHMOOD ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} In order to optimize the conditions for reactive dyeing, some variations in the procedure adopted by the industry were taken into consideration. In the present work the effect of buffers like 25 % K2HPO4,  NaHCO3 + NaOH, KCl + NaOH and Borax + NaOH was studied on the color strength by using Sumifix 3RF yellow (Trichloropyrimidine (TCP)  available from Sandoz Corp.) and the results were compared to that of soda ash under the same identical conditions as being employed in textile industry. The effect of salt addition on the fastness of dyes was also studied and is reported in this paper in detail.
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Effect of Solid Additives on Pyrolysis Behaviour of Makerwal Coal

IFTIKHAR AHMAD AWAN ,IMTIAZ AHMAD ,TAUQEER AHMAD ,JAN NISAR ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The method used in this study provides a quantitative description of the relationship between the chemical structure of coal and the physical and chemical properties of the resultant pyrolysis products (gas, tar, liquid, and char). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of inorganic solid additives (Na2CO3, K2CO3, CaCO3, MgCO3, Fe2O3 and CaSO4), on flash pyrolysis of high volatile bituminous coal samples from Makerwal coalfields by using open tubular type pyrolyzer coupled with gas chromatography. Two different coal samples were selected for this purpose. The sampling apparatus consisted of two traps in order to separate the products into fractions on the basis of their volatility such as tar, liquid, and gaseous fractions. The product yields released from each sample in their raw, de-mineralized and salt treated form were monitored. The gaseous fractions were directly introduced to GC for identification. The gases were C1-C5 hydrocarbons. The pyrolysis was carried out at 690°C. Some evaluations and comparisons, from the results obtained, are presented.
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Study of Limestone from Nizampur Area for Industrial Utilization

SOHAIL NOOR ,RUBINA BILQEES ,MUHAMMAD YOUNAS ,MUHAMMAD RIAZ ,NAZIR JAN ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The present research was designed to study the chemical composition of Nizampur limestone and to compare it with the already published data of Khyber Agency, Kohat and Cherat areas of NWFP for industrial utilization. Thirteen samples of limestone were collected from different areas of Nizampur for chemical analysis. The results of the study indicate that as compared to these other areas, Nizampur limestone is most suitable for use in glass, paper, pottery and cement industries.
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Evaluation Study of Discharge Gas Cooling Water System of Natural Gas Compressor Station

TAHIR IMRAN QURESHI ,HYUN WOOK HWANG ,JI HOON KIM ,MUHAMMAD SALEEM KHAN ,YOUNG JU KIM ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Evaluation of discharge gas cooling system of a natural gas compressor station was studied. Scale deposition potential and corrosion forming tendencies of the cooling water were monitored. Plant operating at high Holding Time Index contributed towards increased scale forming potential of cooling water. Corrosion data analysis showed slightly high rate of corrosion of cooling water that may be due to improper management of acid dosing in the system. Absence of side stream filtration unit might have supported increased turbidity in the system that helped increased growth of microbial colonies in the water. Cooling water quality standards did not support in keeping balance between corrosive and scale forming potential of the circulating water. Therefore, improved limits of cooling water quality standards have been suggested in this work.
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Investigating Catalytic Effect of Titanium Dioxide on Solar Disinfection of Water

ANWAR RASHID SALEEMI ,NAVEED RAMZAN ,MUHAMMAD NAEEM HAFIZ ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} In this paper the catalytic effect of titanium dioxide (photo-catalysis) on solar disinfection of water for inactivation of Fecal coliform bacteria is investigated. Coating of titanium dioxide crystals on glass are exposed to sunlight in two ways: mobilize and immobilize form. An experiment is conducted in consideration for household application. Coating of titanium dioxide on glass rods (immobilize) and rings (mobilize) are positioned in glass bottles filled with water. Inactivation of Fecal coliform is compared with the normal solar disinfection (SODIS) process. Experiment results shows that titanium dioxide enhances the inactivation efficiency of SODIS by 1:1.3:1.8 corresponding to immobilize and mobilize titanium dioxide, respectively. This development is intended for use by small communities, refugee camps, institutions, and during emergency and disaster situations.
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Investigation of Specific Elemental Distribution in C. sativus L., S. melongena L. and M. charantia L. by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

FAZLULLAH KHAN BANGASH ,SULTAN ALAM ,ILYAS AHMAD ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} C. sativus L. S. melongena L. and M. charantia L. samples were collected from fruit market of Swat and investigated for specific elemental distribution by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the concentration of metals in all samples were high with skin as compared to without skin. The metals were found in concentration (mg/L) as; Sodium: C. sativus L. with skin (10.2) and without skin (9.5), in S. melongena L. with skin (15.2) and without skin was (8.4) and M. charantia L. with skin and seed (4.5) and without skin and seeds was (3.1). Calcium: C. sativus L. with skin (8.1) and without skin (6.0), in S. melongena L. with skin (18.4) and without skin was (11.2) and M. charantia L. with skin and seed (8.1) and without skin and seeds was (6.1). Magnesium: C. sativus L. with skin (7.4) and without skin (6.3), in S.  melongena L. with skin (10.2) and without skin was (8.4) and M. charantia L. with skin and seed (4.5) and without skin and seeds was (3.2). Iron: C. sativus L. with skin (3.1) and without skin (2.1), in S. melongena L. with skin (4.2) and without skin was (1.2) and M. charantia L. with skin and seed (3.1) and without skin and seeds was (4.1). Other elements like nickel, copper, zinc, cobalt, cadmium and chromium were found in trace quantities.
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Mineralogical and Liberation Characteristics of Antimony Ore of Chitral, NWFP, Pakistan

MUHAMMAD SHAFIQUE ANWAR ,MUHAMMAD SHARIF NIZAMI ,MUHAMMAD ARIF BHATTI ,KAMRAN RAZA KAZMI ,KASHIF BUTT ,AKHTER ALI SALEEMI ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} An investigation was carried out to identify the various types of minerals present in antimony ore of Chitral, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan and to determine the suitability of the method for its concentration. Ore has been evaluated and characterized by ore microscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and chemical analysis. The major and minor minerals present in the ore were identified. The textural characteristics such as grain size, grain shape and their arrangement in the ore body were also investigated. The degree of liberation of antimony bearing mineral was studied by particles counting method.  Based on the mineral assemblage and the textural characteristics, the antimony ore of Chitral is amenable to beneficiation by froth flotation technique.
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Elemental Analysis of Activated Carbon by EDS Spectrophotometry and X-Rays Diffraction

FAZLULLAH KHAN BANGASH ,SEE MA ,SULTAN ALAM ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Low cost material (Corncobs-CC, Paulownia tomentosa-PT, Populus caspica-PC and Animal bones-ABC) were utilized for the preparation of activated carbon. Carbon samples were activated chemically and by thermal means (400-1000 °C). The samples were characterized by surface area, EDS analysis showed high carbon contents in the samples activated at high temperature as compared to raw and 400 oC activated samples while the content of oxygen was found to decrease with the increase in activation temperature. Other elements like, chlorine, silica, iron, magnesium etc were found in trace amounts. The XRD analysis using ORIGIN-50 computer software showed that carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen. boron, chromium, fluorine and nitrogen were present in the carbon samples.
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Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide by Nickel Oxide Powders

KHALIDA AKHTER ,

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was studied in the presence of monodispersed nickel oxide powders, obtained from the nickel basic carbonate at the calcinations rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 oC/min and on commercial nickel oxide powders. Effect of pH on the decomposition reaction was used to evaluate the mechanism of the decomposition reaction. It was observed that only the surface negative sites were responsible for the observed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Rates constants were calculated for the decomposition reaction in the temperature range of 35-50 oC and the activation energies were estimated from the Arrhenius plots for all the synthetic and commercial samples of nickel oxides.
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