VOLUME 35, NO2, APR 2013
123456
 
Fabric Tensile Strength as Affected by Different Anti pilling Agents at Various Concentration and pH Levels

MUHAMMAD QAMAR TUSIEF, NASIR MAHMOOD, NABEEL AMIN AND MUHAMMAD SALEEM

Pilling is a phenomenon that has a long cause trouble in textile industry. It is the formation of pills or knops on the surface of woven or knitted fabrics caused by friction and abrasion. If fabric has a pronounced tendency to pilling, their appearances suffer severely after a short period of use. The pilling of fabrics is a serious problem for the apparel industry. The use of anti pilling finishes is one of the best techniques to control the pilling of the fabric. In this method fabric is treated with special anti pilling agents to prevent pilling that promote adhesion of the fibres in the yarn or the fabric. This paper endeavors to optimize the application of different anti pilling agents at different concentration and pH levels on the Tensile Strength of P/C fabric for best results. The results exposed that different anti pilling finishes have significant effects on the Tensile Strength of fabric at different concentration level however different pH levels have no considerable effects.
Pages(238)
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Wet Air Oxidation and Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation for Refinery Spent Caustics Degradation

CHEN CHEN AND TING CHENG

The work focuses on evaluating wet air oxidation and catalytic wet air oxidation technique to degrade refinery spent caustics (original COD is 250,781 mg/L) in a milder operation conditions (150-200˚C, 0.2-2.5MPa). The results show that: in non-catalyst WAO, the highest COD degradation conversion could reach about 75% when 200˚C, 2MPa oxygen and 300rpm were used. At every temperature, the reaction procedures follow pseudo-first order equations and the activation energy is 45.5 kJ/mol. The reactivity of three main contaminants in wastewater is on the order of sulphide > petroleum > volatile phenol. The COD degradation conversion could improve to about 95% when composite catalyst MnOx-CeOx/γ-Al2O3 (WMn/Wγ-Al2O3=0.5 and WCe/W MnOx/γ-Al2O3=0.4) was used. The pseudo-first order equations also could be applied for catalyst system and its activation energy decreases to 27.2 kJ/mol. The catalyst could improve the degradation efficiency of petroleum and volatile phenol. Their conversions could increase to 85% and 74% respectively after catalyst used.
Pages(243)
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Effective Medium Theory Applied to Colloidal Solution of Gold Nanoparticles and Alternating Gold-Silica Multilayer Thin Film Composites

ZAHEER ABBAS KHAN, RACHANA KUMAR AND JOYDEEP DUTTA

Optical modeling of multilayer thin films constructed with oppositely charged nanoparticles help us to understand phenomenon such as surface plasmon resonance, absorbance, transmittance and reflectance. This work reports the application of Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory in quasi-static limit to colloidal suspensions consisting of host material silica and the inclusion material -gold nanoparticles. Layer-by-layer deposition method was used to self-assemble these nanoparticles to build multilayer composite films. By varying the number and thickness of the layers and the size and spacing of the metal inclusion, a facilitative optical design is modeled to build multilayers of nanosized materials targeted for desired applications.
Pages(250)
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Determination of Trace Metal and Mineral Levels in the Tobacco and Cigarette samples using by FASS

ABDULKADIR LEVENT, YAVUZ YARDIM AND CENGIZ DEMIR

Cigarettes and tobacco products are consumed in large amounts by human beings in the world. Also, tobacco is one of the most important agricultural products in Turkey. The accumulation of heavy metals in tobacco leaves in accordance with a possible risk of transferring them to people by smoke is well known. This study was carried out to estimate trace metal and mineral levels in tobacco and cigarettes from Eastern and South-eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The analysis was done by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using dry ashing or wet digestion. Results obtained are in agreement with data reported in the literature.
Pages(257)
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Influence of External factors on Self-Aggregation of Amphiphilic Antidepressant Drug: A Thermodynamic Study

MUHAMMAD ASGHAR JAMAL, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN BUKHARI, MAJID MUNEER AND KHURRAM SHAHZAD

Apparent molar volumes, (V adiabatic compressibilities, (Kand thermal expansivities (E0) of venlafaxine hydrochloride, an amphiphilic antidepressant drug, have been determined in water and aqueous 0.01 mol/kg CaCl2.2H2O solutions. The densities and ultrasound velocities were measured at 298.15 and 303.15 K by using an Anton Paar density sound analyzer (DSA 5000M). The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) of this drug were obtained from ultrasound velocity (u) measurement by using recently developed least square fitting algorithm. Negative deviations from Debye-Huckel limiting law of apparent molar volume for this drug was obtained at 298.15 and 303.15 K in water and 0.01 mol/kg CaCl2.2H2O solutions showing no pre-association below the critical micellar concentration. The volumetric parameters indicating the interactions of venlafaxine hydrochloride with CaCl2.2H2O and in water have been obtained by using transfer molar volume and the resulting values are in good agreement within each other within experimental error. The Partial molar expansivity, (E0), and second derivative values, (∂2V0/∂T2), have also been estimated.
Pages(262)
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Effects of the Doping ZnO on the property of Magnetic Solid Acid SO42-/ZrO2-Fe3O4

MEIQING FAN, BO REN, JUN WANG AND XIAOYAN JING

Two kinds of magnetic solid acid catalysts are prepared via a simple chemical co-precipitation approach. The obtained materials are characterized by X-ray Diffraction, FT-IR Spectrometer, Different Scanning Calorimetry, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer, Transmission Electron Microscopy, High-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Hammett indicator. The results indicate that the doping of ZnO restrains the phase transformation from tetragonal zirconia to monoclinic zirconia. Furthermore, the samples show a magnetic behavior. Saturation magnetization of the sample SO42-/ZrO2-Fe3O4 is smaller than SO42-/ZrO2-Fe3O4-ZnO; Transmission Electron Microscopy results indicate that the increasing ZnO makes the grains size considerably smaller, and the High-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy shows that the doping of ZnO maintains the desired tetragonal zirconia phase, and the interplanar spacing is d(101)=0.29 nm. Hammett indicator results show that the acid strength becomes stronger because of the doping of ZnO. The synthesis of methyl laurate as the probe reactions of magnetic solid acids is studied, and the result indicates that the doping of ZnO delays the deactivation rate of catalysts.
Pages(267)
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Zirconium Phosphate-Methylene Blue Composite Immobilized at Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid Matrix for Electrochemical Detection of NADH

XIAOYING ZENG, JUXING JIANG, HAIYUN ZHANG, WENJING LU AND DAWEI PAN

Electroactive methylene blue (MB) entrapped in -zirconium phosphate (ZrP) were first synthesized by a simple chemical method. Room-temperature ionic liquid (IL) was used as a matrix to immobilize ZrP-MB composite on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrode and the resulting modified electrode can be utilized in electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH. Because of the combination of the excellent electroactivity of MB, the good chemical and mechanical properties of ZrP and the good ionic conductivity of IL, the response current of NADH at PG/ZrP-MB/IL electrode is much larger than that in bare and ZrP-IL electrode and the interference of ascorbic acid can be avoided efficiently. The PG/ZrP-MB/IL electrode displayed high sensitivity (76.5 mA M-1 cm-2), low detection limit (6 M), fast response time (within 5s) and wide linear range (6-540 M).
Pages(272)
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Volumetric and Ultrasonic Studies of an Antidepressant Drug in Aqueous and Alcoholic Medium over Temperature Range 298.15-313.15 K

MUHAMMAD ASGHAR JAMAL, MUHAMMAD KALEEM KHOSA, MAJID MUNEER, FAZAL-UR-REHMAN, KHALID MAHMOOD ZIA AND KHURRAM SHAHZAD

Escitalopram oxalate is an amphiphilic serotonin specific reuptake inhibitor-antidepressant drug. Ultrasonic velocity (u) and density (d) measurements were carried out for Escitalopram oxalate in aqueous and alcoholic systems as a function of concentration in a range of molality, m = (0.0075-0.04) mol.Kg-1 at 298.15-313.15 K using an Anton Paar density sound analyzer (DSA 5000M). Using these experimental values, the acoustical parameters such as apparent molar adiabatic compressibility (K), apparent molar volume (Vand partial molar volume (V0) was computed for all the systems. The Partial molar expansivity (E0) and second derivative values, (∂2V0/∂T2), have also been estimated. The critical micelle concentrations of this drug were obtained from ultrasound velocity measurement by using recently developed least square fitting algorithm. The results are interpreted in the light of structure-making or structure-breaking effects of escitalopram oxalate in the mixtures.
Pages(276)
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Dye-fixing Behaviors of Novel Reactive Cationic Copolymers of 3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropylmethyldiallylammonium Chloride and Dimethyldiallylammonium Chloride [P(CMDA-DMDAAC)s] on Cotton Fabric

YIKAI YU AND YUEJUN ZHANG

Dye-fixing Behaviors of Novel Reactive Cationic Copolymers of 3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropylmethyldiallylammonium Chloride and Dimethyldiallylammonium Chloride [P(CMDA-DMDAAC)s] on Cotton Fabric
Pages(281)
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The Nonenzyme Ethanol Sensor Based on Pt NPs and Fe3O4 MNPs Modified Au Electrode

JUN WAN, XIUJU MA, LING XING AND GUANG YIN

The none enzyme ethanol sensor was prepared using Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) modified Au electrode. Pt NPs were deposited on the gold plated electrode through the method of potentiostatic deposition. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were added to the surface of Pt NPs modified Au electrode to obtain the Au/Pt/Fe3O4MNPs electrode. The as-prepared Au/Pt/Fe3O4MNPs electrode was used for the detection of liquid ethanol without using enzyme. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to study the behavior of ethanol electro-catalytic oxidation on Pt/Au/Fe3O4 electrode. It was found that Pt NPs played strong catalytic oxidation role of ethanol with the presence of Fe3O4 MNPs. The linear range of Au/Pt/Fe3O4MNPs electrode for the detection of ethanol was of 2 × 10-5 ~ 1.1 × 10-4 mol•L-1 and the detection limit was of 3.2 × 10-6 mol•L-1 when signal to noise ratio was 3σ. The sensibility of the sensor is 420.4 μA•mmol-1•cm-2. The simple method provided an effective means for fabricating the novel sensors.
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