VOLUME 30, NO3, JUN 2008
123
 
Effects of Fluorescent Light Oxidation on the Physio-Chemical Properties of Ilibum marianum and Helianthus annuus oils

FAZLULLAH KHAN BANGASH ,HIDYAT ULLAH ,TAUFIQ AHMAD ,SHAHEEN ATTA ,

The effects of fluoresescent light on the quanlity parameters of crude Silybum marinum oil (SMO) and crude helianthus annuus (sunflower)oil (HAO) were studied. The quanlity constants monitored were free fatty acid (FFA), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (POV), anisidine value (AV), colour (OD) and b-carotene. Results revealed an increase in FFA,  POV,  AV after stronge under continuous fluorescent light irriadiation. However, OD ant IV decresed in both oils under the test condition. More decrease in colourswas observed in Silybum marinum oil than helianthus annuus oil, while a reverse trend was found in iodine value. The decrese in b-carotene concentreation in both oils remained almost same. The crude silybum maranum oil is found to be very sensitive to oxidiation when exposed to flurescent light than the crude Helianthus annus oil
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Ground Water Contamination by Effluent from Tanneries in Kasur (Pakistan)

TAHIRA SHAFIQ ,IFTIKHAR AHMAD ,NADIA RIAZ ,AMMARA HABIB ,

This paper presents the comprehensive quality of ground water contamination due to tannery effluent in different localities of Kasur. Samples were collected from 22 wells both residential and tanneries areas and investigated for physicochemical parameters like pH, conductance, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, chlorides sulfates, nitrates, calcium magnesium, sodium and potassium ions .The levels of these parameters were compared with the WHO guidelines for drinking water standards. The sampling sites closer to tannery areas were more affected than the residential areas. Chlorides, sulfates, total dissolved solids , nitrates, sodium and calcium values  13.6 %, 50 %, 36.3 %, 36 %, 68 % and 73.7 % of samples have exceeded the WHO limits. The given analysis supports the fact that tannery effluent is one of the major causes of ground water contamination.
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Effects of pH on the Uptake Pattern of Metals Copper, Cadmium and Cu: Cd Mixture in Larvae of the Penaeid Shrimp

FAROOQI A KHAN ,TANZIL HAIDER USMANI ,HINA ASGHAR SIDDIQI ,ALIA BANO MUNSHI ,

 (Received 20th September 2006, revised 3rd March 2007) Summary: The effect of pH on the uptake of Cu and Cd along with their mixture on larvae of Penaeus penicillatus and Penaeus monodon was studied at the pH range of 5.30 to 9.00. The uptake of Cu and Cd increased with decrease of pH, as pH increased from 5.30 upto 8.34 the accumulated concentration of Cu and Cd decreased. The lethal pH found in this study was 2.5 and 9 at which all larvae died within one hour even in control sample. The lethal pH at which minimum survival rate as well as highest accumulation as observed was 5.30.There was a marked effect of pH on the uptake process of Cu and Cd, which was found to be directly proportional to the exposed concentration in media. The minimum acceptable pH was calculated at which survival rate was reduced up to 50 % over each successive developmental stage of larvae. pH was therefore found to be an effective factor for controlling survival of shrimp larvae during shrimp rearing at culture plants. 
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Concentration of Metals in the Green Leafy Vegetables Grown in Peshawar, Swat and

ATIF LATIF ,ABDUL WAJID ,SAEED AKHTAR ,SOHAIL NOOR ,

The metals investigated were Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Cd, Pb. The level of Fe was found to be highest. The maximum concentration of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Cd, Pb were found to be 20.51 (Malva Parviflora), 03. 56 (Lepidium Chalepense), 00. 88  (Brassica Compestris Rapa), 6.15 (Lepidium Chalepense), 00.58 (Malva Parviflora), 00. 03 (Malva Parviflora and Brassica Compestris Rapa), 00. 08 (Lepidium Chalepense, Brassica Compestris Rapa and Malva Parviflora respectively) while lower concentration were 10. 20 (Trigonella Foenum Graecum), 01. 30 (Brassica Compestris Rapa), 00. 20 (Brassica Compestris Rapa), 01. 00 (Trigonella Foenum Graecum), 00. 05 (Trigonella Foenum Graecum), 00. 00 (Trigonella Foenum Graecum and Malva Parviflora), 0. 00 (Lepidium Chalepense and Malva Parviflora respectively) respectively. The overall contents of these metals investigated were found to be within permissible limits. The result of this study showed that the accumulation of metals in these vegetables is of nutritional interest.
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A New Method for the Preparation of Copper Oxychloride (A Fungicide

SHAHNAZ PARVEEN ,RASHID ALI SIDDIQUI ,MUHAMMAD ISHAQUE QAIMKHANI ,MUHAMMAD RAUF ,

Copper oxychloride CuCl2.3Cu (OH) 2 has been prepared by the aeration of copper in acidic (HCl) solution of sodium chloride (NaCl). The results were compared with those of two other similar methods; one is involved with aeration of copper in acidic (HCl) solution and in the other copper was aerated in sodium chloride solution. The results showed that the reaction in the newly developed method is faster than the reaction of the latter two.
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Conditions for Minimization of AOX Development in UV-Oxidative Treatment of Wastewater

MUHAMMAD SALEEM KHAN ,KIM JI HOON ,JUNG SUK HO ,YOUNG JU KIM ,TAHIR IMRAN QURESHI ,

Adsorbable Organic Halogens (AOX) development in UV-oxidative degradation of the wastewater is a phenomenon of pH governing, quantitative measurement of halides, and oxidation model type. Synergy of UV with two oxidants generated the highest amount of AOX. Peroxide induced degradation showed the least development of AOX, depicting more or less the same results with that of ozone induced degradation. AOX concentration, irrespective of the oxidation systems, was found below discharge limit (1.0 mg/ L) when the wastewater fortified with lower concentration of chloride (500 mg/ L) was treated at a wide range of pH values (3~10). However, amount of AOX developed increased from the discharge limit when the systems were operated with higher concentration of chloride (>500 mg/ L). Acidic medium favored AOX development while basic medium suppressed its development. AOX development proceeded with an inclusive trend of corresponding decline in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of the wastewater.
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Groundwater Quality of District Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan: Focus on Fluoride and Fluorosis

FAHMIDA PARVEEN ,FAROOQ AHMED KHAN ,SOFIA KHALIQ ALVI ,TANZIL HAIDER USMANI ,UZMA ASGHAR ,

  Summary: The concentration of fluoride (F) in groundwater samples of district Tharparkar was determined, which is the largest arid region of Sind province. Various other water quality parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4, HCO3, were also measured. On the basis of these results, the groundwater of dist. Tharparkar can be characterized according to Rabinove, et al., classification of salinity as moderately to highly saline and according to Durfor, Beaker’s classification of total hardness, these samples may be characterized as hard to very hard. A systematic calculation of correlation coefficient among fluoride and other physicochemical parameters was performed, a significant –ve correlation was observed for F and Ca, Ca/ F ratio, Mg, HCO3, & Cl contents of district Tharparkar. The fluoride concentration in the groundwater samples of this region varied from (0.93–11.8) mg/ L. 27 samples out of 33 were found to have higher fluoride contents as compared to WHO Guideline value of 1.5 ppm. These elevated levels of fluoride are putting the population at a high risk of dental and skeletal fluorosis and other severe problems associated with fluoride.
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X-Ray Diffraction Analysis to Study the Effect of Metal Loading and Calcination and Reduction Temperatures for Supported Palladium Catalysts

MUHAMMAD MAZHAR ,JAVED IQBAL ,MAQSOOD AHMED ,FEROZA HAMID WATTOO ,SYED AHMED TIRMIZI ,MUHAMMAD TUFAIL ,MUHAMMAD HAMIDSARWAR WATTOO ,

XRD have been used to study Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalysts prepared by solution impregnation method. Effect of metal loading and calcination and reduction temperatures were studied to observe active metal particles growth. On calcination, growth of tetragonal PdO was observed only at 400 and 500 °C. However, for hydrogen reduced catalysts, fine face centred cubic particles growth was observed even for 300 °C treated catalysts. Catalysts with metal loading < 2 % cannot be evaluated by their XRD spectra. In hydrogen reduced catalysts, peaks became sharpened when metal loading was increased to reasonable level. Results showed that XRD technique can be extensively used to study reduced metal particles rather to study oxidised one but to definite metal levels that can show Bragg’s angle of diffraction. It has also been observed that growth of both PdO and Pd particles was increased with the elevated temperature.
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Physico-Chemical Treatment of Textile Wastewater using Natural Coagulant Cassia fistula (Golden Shower) Pod Biomass

RAZIYA NADEEM ,RAKSHANDA NAWAZ ,MUHAMMAD NADEEM ZAFAR ,MUHAMMAD ASIF HANIF ,HAQ NAWAZ BHATTI ,

The use of conventional systems for the treatment of textile industry effluents has made it possible to meet environmental regulations. Due to high cost of the treatment facilities, its implementation is scarce, especially in developing countries, where effluents are discharged into water bodies without any treatment. The internal mass of the Pods of the plant species C. fistula (amaltas) contains natural polyelectrolytes which were used as coagulants to clarify turbid textile industry wastewaters. In laboratory tests, direct filtration of turbid wastewater from textile units (dying units: DU and finishing units: FU) with internal mass of the pods of C. fistula as coagulant, produced a substantial improvement in the aesthetic and microbiological quality of wastewater from textile units. During the study, following parameters were studied before and after the treatment with C. fistula dose: pH, conductivity, hardness , turbidity, salinity, sulfate, total alkalinity as CaCO3 , chloride, fluoride, total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrate, nitrite, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Equilibrium data for hardness were fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The Langmuir model fitted well to sorption data of textile industry (FU) whereas textile industry (DU) sorption data was better described by Freundlich isotherm model. The present method appears suitable for industrial wastewater treatment in heavily industrialized areas of developing and developed countries. This natural coagulant produced ’low risk' wastewater; however, additional disinfection or treatment should be practiced during localized high pollution.
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Analytical Investigation of Selected Inorganic Nutrients of Desert Growing Aloes

MUHAMMAD HAMIDSARWAR WATTOO ,ALLAH BUX GHANGHRO ,SYED AHMAD TIRMIZI ,MUHAMMAD YAQOOB KHAN ,ASMA ANJUM ,JAVED IQBAL ,FEROZA HAMID WATTOO ,

The use of Aloe vera as a family medicine is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. Often general practitioners seem to know little about its inorganic constituents for the treatment of certain diseases. Keeping this in view, the levels of pH, moisture contents, organic contents, soluble salts, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, CO32-, SO42- and PO43- in both soil and plant samples were studied and a strong positive correlation was observed for certain pairs of nutrients. The results were expressed on X ± SD basis and showed varied levels of selected nutrients in plant and soil samples. In case of soils the observed order in mg kg-1 was > SO42- > CO32- > Na+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Cl- > Mg2+ > PO43- and in case of plant the order was > CO32- > SO42- > Na+ > K+ > Ca2+ > PO43- > Cl- > Mg2+. This base line data generated will be helpful for the medicinal uses of this plant.
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