VOLUME 28, NO3, JUN 2006
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Characterization and Evaluation of Thur Coal for Different Mineral Contents

I AHMAD ,N ALI ,S Y PARK ,M SHAKIRULLAH ,K SAEED ,H KHAN ,M ISHAQ ,

A coal sample, obtained from Thur (Sindh, Pakistan) coal mine was analyzed for various parameters such as moisture, volatile matter, ash, fixed carbon, chloride, total sulfur, sulfatic and pyretic sulfur. Fixed carbon (27.19%) was found low as compared to voltaic matter (45.92%), which is an indication of a young coal suggesting its rank between peat and lignite. Element such as iron, zinc, nickel copper, lead and chromium, determined in the coal ash suggest that the concentration of iron was highest where as the concentration of chromium was lowest among the metals studied.    
Pages(207)
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Effect of Selected Parameters on Adsorption of Benzoic Acid on Activated Charcoal

M A KHAN ,IHSAN ULLAH ,Y IQBAL ,

Benzoic acid was adsorbed on activated carbon under varying conditions such as time, pH and degassing temperature. Equilibrium adsorption was established within four hours. The pH was found to have considerable effect on adsorption. Increase in degassing temperature had a significant effect on adsorption of benzoic acid. Various possible reasons for change in adsorption with pH and increase degassing temperatures are discussed in detail. Freundlich and Langmuir equations were successfully applied to the adsorption isotherm data of benzoic acid.
Pages(211)
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A New Model for the Estimation of Energy Gap for GaAs and AlGa

S D H RIZVI ,S M RAZA ,S RIZVI ,S M M R NAQVI ,

The photoacoustic spectrum was obtained on GaAs and AlGa. A unique formula for the determination of energy gap is developed for these materials, the numerical values of which are found to be in conformity with other results. The energy gap formula is established on the basis of self-conjectured relationship, which follows the peak frequency of the photoacoustic spectrum. The frequencies of the optical and acoustic mode of phonons have also been calculated and reported the very first time. The Debye Waller factor was also calculated to categorize the properties of these materials.
Pages(218)
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Trace Metals Contamination in Ground Waters of SITE Area Karachi

F A KHAN ,U ASGHAR ,S K ALVI ,I SIDDIQUI ,T H USMANI ,

Levels of trace metals in SITE (Sindh Industrial Trading Estate), and its adjoining residential area have been determined. Altogether 39 samples were collected from different industrial and residential colonies around SITE area. The elevated levels of trace metals found in these samples, determined by AAS, are due to indiscriminate disposal of industrial effluents. The average and ranges (given in parentheses) of these metals, in the area were found to be Fe, 0.766 (0.012-10.85) ppb, Mn0.028 (0.002-0.165) ppb Zn 0.564 (0.016-4.206) ppb, Cu 21.25 (1.3-61.6) ppb, Pb 23.24 (0.72-199.25) ppb, Cr 21.20 (3.2-173.5) ppb, Ni 9.65 ppb (below detection limit in single sample to be as high as 38 ppb) and Cd 0.19 ppb (below detection limits in nine samples maximum concentration was found to be 0.64 ppb), Moreover some significant correlations ( values given in parentheses) were also estimated for Mn & Cd (0.7206), Zn & Ni (0.5722), Cu and Pb (0.5621) for the industrial area and Fe & Mn (0.6176), Cu % Cr (0.7715) for the adjoining residential area. Some other important correlations were obtained, for Mn % NO2 (0.568) Cu & NO3 (0.5305), Ni & Cl (0.6537), Ni & SO4 (0.5818), and Cd & NO3 (0.5146) for ground waters of SITE area. The chemical quality of these waters shows a highly dissolved salt content and the percentage compositions of mineral contents is almost same as that sea water, which indicates that three might be seawater intrusion in this particular area and which be due to excusive water pumping and low rain fall. 
Pages(223)
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A Method for Simultaneous Detection and Determination of Sudan-I, II, III & IV in Food Stuff by HPLC

A NELOFAR ,S T KHAN ,A YASMIN ,

A simple and rapid HPLC method for simultaneous determination of Sudan-I, II, III & IV dyes is described. The method is applied for the determination of dyes Sudan-I, II, III & IV in commercial samples of chilli powder, turmeric powder, food color, dry sauce, oil soluble colour and pickles procured from the local market. Limit of detection of method was investigated and found to be 5 ppm.
Pages(230)
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Effect of Heavy Metals on Lepidium sativum, Growing in Various Polluted Areas of Peshawar Pakistan

T MAHMOOD ,L KHAN ,I HUSSAIN ,

Heavy metal like Cr, Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, Ni and Mn were investigated in the medicinal plant Lepidium sativum as well as in their soils using atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The plant samples were collected from three different areas i.e. polluted, less polluted and non-polluted area of Peshawar situated at distance of 3 and 4 km from the main polluted area. The plant parts including roots, stem, leaves and seeds were found to have more heavy metal than less polluted and non-polluted area. The main purpose of the study was to make awareness among the public about the use of such medicinal plants containing high level of heavy metals and their adverse health affects.
Pages(232)
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Comparative Studies of Vitamin C Contents in Different Processed and Un-Processed Milk Samples

I AHMAD ,I HUSSAIN ,I REHMAN ,M ISHAQ ,M SHAHKIRULLAH ,

Vitamin C contents were measured in various milk including powder, liquid pack and animal milks using UV-VIS spectrometric techniques. In all the milk samples, high concentration of Ascorbic acid was found in the powder milk (Poland SMP) 57.02 mg/100g followed by Milk pack sample i.e. Haleeb Tea Max 26.80 mg/100g. thus as a whole the general order of vitamin C contents was powder> liquid milk packs> Animal milk. T7he purpose of the study was to know the contents of vitamin C in various milk samples.  
Pages(236)
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Investigation of Heavy Metal Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr, Fe and Ni in Ammi visnaga

I HUSSAIN ,

Heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr, Fe and Ni were investigated in the medicinal plant Ammi visnaga using atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The plant was collected from three different regions including polluted, less pollute and relatively unpolluted area of Peshawar. The importance of this study was to investigate the effects of heavy metals on A. visnaga. The local peoples use A. visage for different body disease and for stomach pain too. The study will be of particular importance for public awareness about the heavy metals contents and their possible health effect.  
Pages(241)
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Investigation of Heavy Metals in Commercial Tea Brands

Y IQBAL ,S J KHALIL ,F KHAN ,I HUSSAIN ,

Heavy metals like Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Co, Mn and other minerals including Na and K were investigated in both black and green commercial tea samples by using atomic adsorption Spectrophotometry. In all the tea samples, the concentration of Pb was found high. In one of the black tea sample Cr was found in greater amount, 14.75 mg/kg, while Fe, Zn and Cu was found in lower concentration in all tea samples. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the concentration of heavy metals and to make awareness among the public about the use of such tea leaves containing high amount of toxic metals.
Pages(246)
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Inhibition of Growth of Streptococuss pyogenes Group A and Escherichia Coli by EDDA

B A MEMON ,T H BIRKBECK ,

The growth inhibiting activity of AADA (Ethylenediamin di-(o-hydroxyphenyl-acetic acid) towards Streptococuss pyogenes group A and E.coli MW was investigated bactericidal effect was observed at concentration up to 14mM in E.coli MW whereas the strains of Streptococuss pyogenes group A were unaffected by 44mM EDDA suggesting that Streptococuss pyogenes group A was insensitive to even large molar excess of EDDA and this observation indicated either extraordinary efficient Fe acquisition or low Fe requirement as compared to E.coli MW.
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