VOLUME 28, NO5, OCT 2006
123
 
UN-Visible Analysis of Asphalt and Crackates from Asphalt

H REHMAN ,A A SHAH ,M ISHAQ ,M SHAKIRULLAH ,I AHMAD ,M ARSALAN KHAN ,

The present paper demonstrate the UV-VIS analysis of various products obtained form thermal and catalytic cracking of asphalt in a micro autoclave under nitrogen atmosphere Adsorption bands correspond to conjugated benzene rings in the virgin sample indicate aromatic character. It is evident that the peaks correspond to aromatic conjugated system, unsaturation and heteroatoms are almost a feature of every spectrum which confirms that the products of cracking are unsaturated and need further hydrogenation in a seprate step before their marketable use.  
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Quantum Behaviour of Dielectricity in Dolomite of Balochistan, Pakistan

FAZL UR REHMAN ,M A AHMED ,M GORMANI ,S M RAZA ,

The dielectric measurements on dolomite (MgCO3, CaCO3) in the frequency and temperature range 30Hz-100kHz and 300-700K, respectively are reported. The peaks in the imaginary part of permittivity are ascribed to the quantum behaviour of dielectric. The ionic bonds between magnesium Mg++ with carbonate CO3­ and Ca++ with CO3­ are stretched due to polarization. This stretching of ionic bonds configures a space of its own in which energy at a characteristic frequency oscillates (quanta). The characteristic frequency is of ionized solitions.
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Kinetics Study of Dehydrohalogenation of 1-chlorohaexane

M HUMAYUN ,J NISAR ,T AHMAD ,A SHAKOOR ,I A AWAN ,

Thermal decomposition of 1-chlorohexane was studied was studied over temperature range 623-833 K and pressure between 5-20Torr. Following rate expression was obtained for homogeneous, non-radical dehydrohalogenation reaction.   K(total)=109.84±1.08 S-1 exp-177.25±3.55 (k/mole)RT     The observed activation energy and frequency factor was found to be consistent with the elimination of hydrochloric acid via four-member cyclic transition state. The effect of the surface on the reaction was studied at 653.2 K using the packed reaction vessel. It was observed that the reaction proceeds 10% faster in the packed vessel than the unpacked reaction was investigated at 653.2 K. A series of 10 minute’s pyrolysis with initial pressure in the range 5-20torr were made. There was Ca 10.3% increase in the rate of reaction as the pressure was lowered from 20 to 5 Torr.
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Comparison of Vitamin C contents in Commercial Tea Brands and Fresh Tea Leaves

M SALEEM ,I HUSSAIN ,S J KHALIL ,Y IQBAL ,

Vitamin C contents were investigated in 14 tea brands collected from local market in Peshawar and one brand from National Tea Research Centre at Mensehra, NWFP Pakistan, using UV-Visible Spectrophotometry. In all tea samples, high amount of Vitamin C was found in green tea than black tea leaves. The fresh tea leaves collected directly from plant was found to have the same amount of Vitamin C as the green tea leaves. The small amount of vitamin C in black tea may be due to its processing as vitamin C is highly sensitive top heat, light and decomposes frequently.  
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Assessment of Chromium in the Water and Sediments of Indus Delta Mangroves

S ISMAIL ,S H KHAN ,S M SAIFULLAH ,

Chromium concentration was assessed in water and sediments of different habitats of Indus Delta mangroves. It is observed that highest concentration of chromium was 0.291 ppb in water and in sediments 72.20 ppm at Sandspit, whereas lowest concentration was 0.19 ppb in water and in sediments 18 ppm at Miani Hor, which is considered as comparatively pristine area. The higher levels of chromium is considered due to different anthropogenic activites including industrialization and urbanization. Mangrove sediments accumulate greater amounts of heavy metals like chromium than water or any other components of marine ecosystem and therefore, termed as biologeochemical sink. This characteristic of mangrove sediments is due to the high concentration of organic matter and sulphides under permanently reduced conditions.
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Comparative Physicochemical Study of Five main Ponds of Districts Bhimber Azad Jammu and Kashmir

M A MIRZA ,G M ARAIN ,M Y KHUHAWAR ,

District Bhimber is situated at foot hills at 275-975 meters above sea level with 1516 sq K.M area with subtropical type climate and around population 3 million. Five main pounds of district Bhimber Azad Jammu and Kashmir state were selected for the physicochemical analysis. The samples were collected and analyzed in three seasons (summer, winter and autumn) during 2004-2005. The water samples were found within the range pH 6.56-7.54 conductivity 310-503 mS/cm, TDS 198-322 mg/L, Sulphate 20.6-91.33 mg/L, chlorides 55-80 mg/L, Nitrite 0.02-0.155 mg/L, Nitrate 0.794-1.42 mg/L, ortho-Phosphate 0.112-0.254mg/L, total phosphate 0.154-10.312 mg/L, magnesium 3.2-7.2 mg/L, Sodium 17.7-52.8 mg/L, potassium 2.15-8.83 mg/L, calcium 13.7-25.1 mg/L, magnesium 3.2-7.2 mg/L, Pb 0.009-0.057 mg/L. the results obtained were compared with WHO standards for drinking water and with each of the parameters investigated were found within the permissible limit but concentration of Pb, Cd and organic, nitrogen crossed the limits. The water of five ponds is suitable for human consumption, aquatic life as well as for agricultural purposes.    
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Spectrophotometric Determination of Tranexamic acid in Dosage forms by Derivatization

F M A RIND ,K F ALMANI ,M Y KHUHAWAR ,A D RAJPAR ,

Tranexamic acid (TA) was determined spectrophotometrically after derivatizing with salicylaldehyde (SA) or 5, 5’-methylene-bis-salicylaldehyde (BSA) at neutral pH in aqueous-methanolic solution. The reaction conditions were optimized and the derivatives absorbed maximally at 410nm and 412nm for SA and BSA respectively. The Beer’s law was obeyed in the range 7.8-18.6 mg/ml tranexamic acid, with coefficient of determination of 0.9995 and 0.9998. The methods were applied for the determination of tranexamic acid in pharmaceutical preparations with coefficient of variation 0.76-0.97%.
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Wastewater Management: Early Lessons from Private Sector Partnership of a Municipal Waste water Treatment plant

Young-Ju Kim ,T I QURESHI ,

Induction of private sector partnership into a municipal wastewater treatment facility of the local government of Daegu City, South Korea was studied. Performance of the plant operated by a private party following the management contract for the period of three years (1998-2000) was examined Quality control parameters determined throughout pre and post-privatization periods were analyzed. Efficiency of the plant in term of operational cost based on per capita removal of bio-solid material was evaluated. Under the private management, influence flow rate was increased by 5% in the year 2000 compared to pre-privatization period, BOD and COD in the incoming flow were reduced to 30.4% and 20.5% respectively.  While those in outgoing flow were reduced to 26% and 14.6%, respectively. Approximately 40.7% of TSS was reduced at influent level, presumably due to improvement in drainage system. Work force was reduced to 29% which proportionally increased the per capita removal of bio-solid materials by 41%. In spite of the fact that the consumer price index was increase by 18.8% treatment cost per ton was reduced to 11.5%. Increases in the hydraulic loading rate over and above optimizing expenditures of the plant. Successful running of the partnership during the trial period recommended the city government of Dargu, South Korea that ownership of the facility could be handed over to the private operator probably under a concession type contract for a period of 25-30 years.
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Spectrophotometric Determination of Cobalt (II) as Complexes with Bromopyrogallol Red is Micellar Media of Tween 80

G A SHAR ,G A SOOMRO ,

Cobalt (II) was \determined spectrophotomerically with bromopyrogallol red as complexing reagent in aqueous phase in presence of a non-ionic surfactant Tween 80. Beer’s law is obeyed, over the concentration range 0.25-4.0 mg mL-1| with the detection limit of 1.0 ng nL-1. Validation of this method has been made by comparing the results with those obtained by flame Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy, no significant difference was noted between the two methods as 95% confidence interval. The method is simple, accurate and economical and has been applied for the determination of cobalt (II) is pharmaceutical samples.
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Evaluation of the status of Iron in Different Honey Samples

M I BHANGER ,A N MEMON ,T G KAZI ,S I ARAIN ,

The aim of this study was to assess the contact of essential element, iron in different honey samples using atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. Thirty honey samples, classified as natural, branded and farming were collected from hives, farms and local market. Mineral acid mixture sulfuric acid and nitric acid in (1:1 ratio) was used to destroy the organic matter. A significant difference in iron content was found between neutral honey (22.994±4.188), Farming honey (14.49±6.23) and branded honey (16.71±7.8) with (p<0.001). Natural honey contained higher amount of iron content as compared to the farming and branded honey.
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