VOLUME 29, NO3, JUN 2007
Effect of Textile Auxiliaries at Various Stages of Processing and Its Impact on Tensile Strength


An experimental investigation has been undertaken for the determination of tensile strength of cotton fabric, which undergoes to the various textile chemical- processing operations of pre-treatment, dyeing and finishing. Two different commercial products for each chemical treatment at three different concentrations were examined. The method of percentage dropage was used in bleaching process for the determination of stabilizer efficiency and loss of strength. Increase in weight after using stiff finish at different concentration is also analysed.
Effects of Low Dose ‘1 Radiations on the Stability of Canola and Sunflower Oils


Gamma rays at the dose rate of 5, 20,40,60,80, and 100 bad were applied to irradiate canola and sunflower oils, and changes in their quality parameters were determined. The quality constants monitored were free fatty acid (FFA), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (POV), anisidine value (AV) and color (OD). Results revealed that a significant increase (p< 0.05) in FFA, POV, AV, and OD occurred after irradiation. However, IV decreased in both the oils as the radiation doses increased. Canola oil was found to be more stable than sunflower oil under the test conditions.
Application of Sulfonated Arylamines Dichiorotriazine Based Reactive Dyes on Cofton Fabric and Study of Various Parameters to Define Color and Fastness Properties


By following welleknown methods, sulfonated aiylamines dichlorotriazinc based reactive dyes were synthesized, isolateøi and applied on knitted pure cotton fabric by exhaust process. Various parameters to define color and fastness properties were measured. Desire hue and properties can be obtained by changing the coupling reagent; sulfonated aiylamine during the synthesis of sutfonated arylamines dichiorotriazine based reactive dyes. Orange, red and purple hue were obtained by using I anaphthol3suIfonic acid, 6 amino, I enaphthoi.3esulfonic acid, I amino and l4laphthol’3,6-disUIfOniC acid, 8 amino respectively, while lenaphthola3,Sadisulfonic acid, S amino and 1,5-disulfonic acid, 7 amino provided peach puff hue. The prepared dyes delivered a change in color equivalent to gray scale step 4/5 to 5 for wash fastness, gray scale step 3 to 4 for spotting with hydrochloric acid, gray scale step 314 to S for spotting with acetic acid, gray scale step 3 to 415 for steeping with sodium carbonate and gray scale step 1 to 3/4 for spotting ith calcium hydroxyl& Chromatographic, visible and infrared spectroscopic studies of synthesized dyes were also performed.
Sorption Kinetics of Water Vapours in Chromatographic Silica Gel


Adsorbents possess two fundamental properties One property is the maximum adsorption capacity, which is determined from equilibrium adsorption isotherm. The other property is the adsorption rate constant, derivable from adsorption kinetics. Experimental data on the physical adsorption of water vapour by chromatographic silica gel, at different relative vapour pressures, were used to calculate values for the kinetic adsorption capacity and adsorption rate constant at room temperature. Various types of diffusivities were determined through equations derived by Fick. Total pore volume (0.58 1 cc gel) and specific surface area (744 m 2 g-l) were found by Gurvitsch rule and Kieselve’s equation respectively. An average pore radius (hydraulic) is 7.8 x 10-8 cm as obtained by a new method suggesting shapeless pore model. The study of these quantities provides a strong basis for evaluating surface properties of adsorbent.  
Oxidative Stability of Silybum marianum and Sunflower Oils


Silybum narianum is a wild oilseed plant With the aim of describing the oxidative stability of the oil obtained from the seeds of the plants grown in PakistAn and of comparing it to sunflower oil from the same climatic region we determined its oxidafive stability under different storage conditions. Determination of oxidative stability of both the oils revealed that the fonnations of primary oxidation products were more affected by auto, photo oxidation and very less by dark oxidation. The peroxide value of fresh silybum marianium and sunflower oil were 5.03 meq/ kg and 3.78 meq/ kg, while after I month in daylight at room temperature peroxide value reached 14.41 meq/ kg and 11 .42meq/ kg for silybum marianum and sunflower oil respectively. In photo oxidation (fluorescent light) the peroxide value after I month reached 11.24 rneq/ kg, for silybum marianum and 9.Olmeq/ kg for sunflower oil. After 4 months storage in darkness peroxide was 7.08 meq/ kg for silybum marianum and 5.65 meq/ kg for sunflower oil. Anisidine value for silybum marianum was 1.34 and for sunflower oil was 034, but after 4 months storage in auto oxidation the anisidine value for silybum marianum was 5.25 and for sunflower oil was 4.03. In fluorescent light anisidine value for silybum mañanum were 4.37 and for sunflower oil were 3.24, while in darkness anisidine value reached to 2.93 for silybum marianum and 2.17 for sunflower oil.
Light Fastness of Bi-Functional Reactive Dyes with PathBatch and Pad-Dry Cure Methods on Cellulosic Substrate


Two bifunctional reactive dyes containing two different reactive groups (sulphatoethylsulphonç and monochiorotriazine) have been applied on cellulosic substrate with pad-batch and packlry cure methods and their light fastness was examined on Mercury Blended Tungsten Filament lamp at different time intervals. It was observed that the light fastness results obtained with pad-batch process were better than with pad-dry cure method. The colorimetric data clearly shows the extent to which the dyeing methods affect the light fastness in terms of fading of color from the original dyeings. Further, it was concluded that the addition of urea at a concentration of 100-120 g/ I exhibited pronounced effect on light fastness of the dyed fabric with pad-dry cure method.  
Environmental Impact Assessment of the Thar, Sonda and Meting-Jhimpir Coalfields of Sindh


  The coal deposits explored so far in the Sindh province include Thar, Sonda, Metinge ihimpir and Lakhra coalfields. mar coalfield is the largest coalfield of Pakistan. It has estimated resources of 175 billion tonnes of coal. The Sonda coalfield is located in the deltaic area of lower Indus and is having the total resources of 280 million tones of coal. The Meting-Jhirrpir is the second oldest coalfield after Lakhra explored in the District Thatta in the Sindh province. It has about 161 million tonnes of coal resources. The representative coal samples from the Sindh coalfields, especially Thar, Sonda and Meting-Jhinpir coalfields, have been analyzed for the concentration of proximate and ultimate constituents, calorific values and heavy, trace and light elements by using various techniques. The sequential leaching behavior of these coals was also performed by using various solvents. The amount of fixed carbon, ash, hydrogen, carbon, arid n’trogen in the Sindh coals are within the permissible limit, however, the sulfur contents, especially in the Sonda and MetingJhimpir coals, are above the permissible limit The sequential leaching analyses suggest that most of the heavy and trace elements are associated with HCI-soluble compounds and also with the insoluble or organic shielded matters. However, iron is generally associated with the l-lNO3esoluble disulfides. The leaching behavior of the Sindh coal suggest that there are chances of contamination of the underground water system due to acid drain water during the large scale coal mining in the region. The combustion of Sindh coal may pose threat to the environment of the region as far as the S. Pb, Zn and Ni contents of the Sonda and Is4etingejhimpir coals are concerned. These coals, therefore, need to be cleaned and also the particulate emission level of the power generation plants should be substantially reduced before the use of these coals in the power generation plants and other industries of Pakistan.
Micro Nutrients Analysis of Soil


The present paper demonstrates the results of the analysis of some soil samples collected from sites located in Districts Peshawar and Laki Marwat. Micronutrients were analyzed using diethylene triarnine penta acetic acid (DTPA) method. It is evident from the data that all the samples were enriched with micronutrients like Fe, K, Na, and Mn. Some of the samples i.e. ones collected from Abakhel contain lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) which are not desirable due to fatal effects on human health if assimilated through food chain. All the samples under study were free of lithium (Li).  
Analysis of Wheat Varieties by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy


  Wheat is one of the most important foodstuffs. It is available in world market in different names and brands with varied quality characteristics. Different techniques are used for evaluation ót quality of wheat sample; however most of these methods used in developing world like Pakistan are costly and difficult. In this study different wheat varieties were evaluated for quality characteristics in term of protein, fats and fiber, which are available as foodstuff in different ecological regions of Pakistan. These varieties are Tatara, Watan, Gandam-7 11, Bakhtawar-92, Fakhre-Sarhad, Bhakkar-O1, Ghaznawy, Saleem-2000, Gandanie2002, ChLidry47, Inqilab—91 and Wafaq-O1. The samples were evaluated for presence of total protein, fat and fiber contents by Near Infrared Spectrophotometer. Results were analyzed statistically for variance in quality parameters. Results suggest that NIR Spectroscopic tool for evaluation of quality of wheat is extremely simple and accurate and give best results for nutritional evaluation of wheat varieties.
FT-IR Analysis of Recycled Polystyrene for Food Packaging


Recycled polystyrene is used to form moulds in various forms used as food containers. In this paper, we are reporting on the suitability of recycled polystyrene and virgin polystyrene used for manufacturing food containers in Pakistan. These polystyrene samples were kept in contact with the vegetable oil at different temperatures ranging from 15—100°C. These samples were analyzed by FT-IR and viscometer. The study demonstrates that recycled polystyrene undergoes some thermal degradation during recycling and the food containers prepared from these materials should not be used for storage of oily food at high temperature.    


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