VOLUME 29, NO4, AUG 2007
Effect of Potassium Nutrition on Elemental Composition in Irrigated Cotton Grown in Aridisols


A nutrient applied to a soil favourably or adversely affects the plant availability of other nutrients present in the soil. Such interaction my occur within the soil, within the plant or at the root surface. Nutrients acting synergistically or antagonistically may imbalance the nutrition of crop plants. Therefore, the effect of potassium (K) nutrition [0, 62.5, 125.0, 250.0 1Eg K ha" of KISO4 or KCl] on interaction of different ions in four cultivars i.e., CIM-448, C1M-l 100, Karishma, S-12 of irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was quantified in silt loam soil. Various plant parts i.e., leaves, stems, burs, seed, lint were analyzed for their ionic composition, i.e., nitrogm (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and sulphur (S) at maturity. The K concentration in different plant parts increased with an increase in soil K-level. Averaged across cultivars and K·doses, K concentration in different plant parts was in the order of leaves > burs > stems > seed > lint. As N concentration increased with increasing levels of K-fertilizer, the relationship between K and N concentration in cotton plant partswas positive (r 0.87** to 0.98**). However, the relationships between K and P, Ca, or Na concentration in leaf tissues werenegative i.e. (r -0.64** to - 0.75**; -0.78** to -0.96**; - 0.65** to -0.91**) respectively. Application of K25,.] in the form of KCl raised Cl content by 175.0, 138.1, 136.4, 111.0 and 33.3 percent in burs, stems, seed, leaves and lint, respectively. There was highly significant r = (0.77** to 0.99**) relationship between K and Cl under KC1 treated plots. However, addition of K;SO4 produced non-significant effect (r 0.03 to 0.50) by addition of KzSOi between K and C1 content. Thus, findings suggest that soil K supply influences ionic relations in cotton plant. Hence, sufficiency levels of N, P, K., Ca, Mg, Na, Cl and S in cotton plant may be considered with respect to K-dose and form of K-fertilizer applied.
Phosphate Sorption on Calcium Carbonate


Phosphate sorption on CaCO; was undertaken at different temperatures (25 -55 °C) and concentrations (1.94 - 3.23 n/mol! l). The sorption of phosphate was found to increase with the increase in both the concentration and temperature. A modified form of the Longmuir equation was used to explain the ion exchange sorption of phosphate on the CaCO;. The thermodynamic parameters also showed the favorable uptake of phosphate on the CaCO;.
Determination of Lead and Cadmium in Different Brand of Cigarettes In Pakistan


This study has been carried out for the determination of lead and cadmium accumulation in different varieties of cigarette available in the local market of Karachi by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotomeuy (AAS). Samples of 24 brands of the cigarette were collected randomly from retail out lem of Karachi. ln this study total average concentration of lead and cadmium were found in the range of l 04 - 5.86 and 0.05 · 2.25 pg/g respectively. The results are discussed with reference to the mean average concentration in the cigarettes reported in previous studies.  
Organic Electrolytes for Redox Flow Batteries


Several organic redox systems were investigated as they represent possible ‘better’ systems for redox flow battery characterisation than aqueous redox couples. All experiments in this work were performed with cyclic voltammetry at room temperature (20 °C) and pressure, Rubrene, Ru(acac); and [Fe(bpy);](ClOt); in acetonitrile were found to exhibit wider potential windows of operation, respectively than aqueous based redox systems (for example the all-vanadium redox flow electrolytes), thereby promising a greater energy output. Due to poor solubility of rubrene in acetonitrile, it has not been foimd to be a viable redox species for redox flow battery applications. The other organo-metallic redox species were promising to be recommended for further evaluation. Experiments with a stationery H-type cell have been reported in the literature but so far no tests have been conducted with redox flow batteries as yet.
Molecular and Physiochemical Evaluation of Wheat


Different varieties of wheat grains from different ecological regions of Pakistan were evaluated for their molecular and physiochemical characteristics. Thirteen varieties examined included Tatara, Watan, Gandam-7l 1, Bakhtawar-92, Fakhre-Sarhad, Baldcar-0l, Ghaznawy, Saleem-2000, Zakht, Gandam-2002, Chudry-97, lnqilab-9l and Wafaq-01. The samples were evaluated for their variation in seed storage protein (gluten) by sodium dodecyl sulphate polycrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS·PAGE) and for physiochemical characteristics including housand-grain mass (T GM), moisture contents and minerals contents. On the basis of molecular haracteristics, the variety Fakhre-Sarhad was designated as the best variety having higher number of molecular weight-Gluten subunits (HMW-GS), though still requiring improvement in the physiochemical status. On the contrary, Watan and gandam-7ll, saleem-2000 and Zakht and chudry-97 contained fewer number of HMW-GS as compared to Fakhre-Sarhad variety and were placed in second position. However, these varieties still need improvement in their protein level. The study may prove to be of great future importance in nutritional as well as crop improvement in Pakistan.  
Comparative Study of Two Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometers Using Ionic-to-Atomic Line Intensity Ratios Under Robust and Non-Robust Conditions


The Mg (11) 280.270 nm! Mg (I) 285.213 nm intensity ratio was used for the comparative study of the matrix effects using two inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometers (ICP-AES) with different torch sizes, under robust and non-robust conditions. We observed that in the presence of a matrix, i.e., 5mg ml" Na, the values ofthe ratio obtained were around 7 and I2 for mini-torch and conventional torch ICP systems, respectively. It has also been observed that under robust conditions the matrix eH`ect on different analytes decreased considerably for both ICP systems. Influence of matrix effect, under robust conditions, on the intensity ratios of various ionic- to—atomic lines such as, Cd (ll) 226.502 nm! Cd (I) 228,802 nm, Cr (Il) 267.716 nm! Cr (I) 357.868 nm, Mg (II) 280.270 nm! Mg (I) 285.213 nm, Ni (II) 231.604 nm! Ni (1) 232.003 nm, Ni (II) 231.604 nm/ Ni (I) 232.138 nm, Pb (II) 220.353 nm! Pb (I) 216.999 nm, and Zn (II) 206.200 nm/ Zn (I) 213.857 nm has also been investigated and the ratios were found to vary similarly. It was concluded that tlte matrix effect due to 5 mg ml" Na could be minimized efficiently on a mini-torch ICP system under robust conditions and tlte residual effect may be due to the sample introduction system.  
Nitrate and Phosphate Pollution in Surface and Ground Water in Western Malaysia


Concentration levels of nitrate and phosphate in river and ground water samples from 9 different states of westem Malaysia were determined. lt was found that most of the rivers are slightly polluted with nitrate and phosphate. The highest concentration of nitrate (26.0 mg] L) was found in Melaka state in the river of Batang, while the lowest concentration of nitrate (2.61 mg! L) was found in the Terengganu state in the river of Besut The highest concentration of phosphate (0.66 mg/L) was found in Penang state in the river of Kulim. The minimum concentration of phosphate (0.02 mg/L) was found in different states. The most important sources that contribute to the pollution were raw crops, irrigated agriculture and over-application of animal wastes.
Effect of Water Potential on Uptake and Accumulation of Cations by Sorghum Seedlings


A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of five different levels of water potential (xp) viz., 0.00; -4.09; -8.18; -12.28 and -16.36 bars on the uptake and accumulation of K‘, Ca" and Na" contents of six cultivars of Sorghum bicolor L. seedlings. Mannitol was used as an osmotic alongwith half strength Hoagland culture solution. Results depicted tl1at in relation to different levels of water potential all mentioned cations responded significantly (P < 0.05). Cultivars response was also found to be significant. Results further revealed that as water potential level increased, K*, Ca" and Na* contents of both root and shoot were generally decreased. Maximum level of K" (13.69 mg g") and Na* contents (308.10 mg kg") in roots were obtained for water potential level of - 4.09 bars. While in case of shoot, maximum level of Ki (25.37 mg g") was also recorded in - 4.09 bars. Whereas, maximum Ca" both for root and shoot (7.47 and 4. 050 mg g") was found in control level of water potential. Data also showed that in general there was an increase uptake of 39. 08 and 79.75 % in Ca'° and Na° contents of root over shoot, respectively. Whereas, shoot Ki contents was 14.16 % greater over their respective roots. Relatively much higher concentration of cations in root than in shoot suggests that the upward translocation! uptake of these ions were influenced by imposed water potential levels. Results based on cumulative drought tolerance index (%) of cations accumulation, Sorghum bicolar cv. Giza-3 could be rated as drought tolerant and cv. 1CSV = 107 and Pak. S.S.ll as drought sensitive. While remaining three cultivars viz., I747, S.E.T P = 14 - 2 and ICSH = 479 could be rated as drought intermediate in response, respectively.
Analysis of Physiochemical Characteristics of Industrial Effluents of H.I.E (Industrial State) Haripur.


Efluents samples from 6 industries of HIE (an industrial area of Haripur) and two nullahs were collected and analyzed for physio-chemical characteristic. The research result show that temperature of the sample was 23-43 °C, pl-1 fiom 3.3 — 13.6, total solid from 660-110668 mg/ 1, total suspended solid from 114- 6590 mg! I, total dissolved solid from 546-76892 mg! 1, total hardness from 14-268 mg} I, total alkalinity from 70·3550_mg/ I, dissolved oxygen from 0-408 mg! l, chemical oxygen demand from 0-644 mg! I, chloride from 7.1-1952 mg/ l, sulphates from 103-1827 mg! l and oil and grease from 1.004-3.949 mg! I. Comparison of these value with the standard show that effluents show deviation from the standard and thus beside effecting the human life, also eifect the fertile land and aquatic life.
Medicinal Status of Colocucia esculenta Linn and Its Relation with Soil


Soil of Colocacia esculenta Linn was collected from the area of Musakhel Swat District and investigated for pH, micronutrients and macronutrients. pH was found in the range of 6.7 to 7.5 which is slightly acidic to neutral. Sodium, potassium and calcium were found in the range of 9.104-16.461 my L, 7.443-19.107 my L and 9.318-20.206 my L respectively. When the calcium contents'are low in the plant body then it could cause the rapid disintegration and distiguring of growing tips of roots and shoots. The low level of calcium in the soil causes reduction in the translocation of carbohydrates, chlorosis, toxicity of meristematic tissues, expansion of cell, and decolourisaticm of roots. Magnesium was in the range of 12.216 to 16.133 my L. At low quantity, magnesium could cause chlorosis and appearance of patches on the leaves and subsequently plant death. Iron was found in the range of 6.037 to 13.315 my L. Copper was found from 1.789 to 4.268 my L. The functions of copper in plants include catalysis for respiration, enzyme constitution, chlorophyll synthesis, and carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Zinc and cadmium were found in the range of 5.07 to 6.677 my L and 1.428 to 4.316 my L respectively, which is lower than the desirable level for a fertile soil. Therefore it may cause diseases like necrosis, wilting, red orange coloration of leaves and general reduction in growth. The tap root of_CoIacacia esculenta Linn, collected from Musakhel Swat District, was investigated for micronutrients and macronutrients. Sodium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, cadmium, aluminium and iron were found in the range of 5.223 to 18.42 my L, 18.123 to 22.43 my L, 6.124 to 12.22 my L, 3.041 to 6.342 my L, 2.1 to 8.6 my L, 0.120 to 0.432 my L, 0.5421 to 3.512 my L and 5.123 to 15.33 my L, respectively.


Browse By Issue