VOLUME 29, NO5, OCT 2007
Biological Treatment of Textile Waste Water by Activated Sludge Process


Biological treatment of textile wastewater in an activated sludge reactor reduces the pollutant up to National Environmental Quality Standards. The removal efficiency of the pollutants was studied before and after pretreatment with commercial lime and granular activated carbon. The contents of parameters BOD, COD, TOS and TSS were studied with respect to 10 days retention time. The reduction of BOD, COD TOS and TSS was 80, 78,48 and 79 % respectively in less than 6 days at neutral pH and 25 °C temperature
Adsorption of Brilliant Blue R on Biotic Precursor Based Carbon


Carbon prepared from the wood of Ailanthus altissima, activated at 400°C and 800 °c was used to adsorb brilliant blue R from aqueous solution at 10°C and 45 0c. Characterization of the activated carbon by XRD, SEM, EDS and FTIR show that the surfaces contain functional groups like carboxyl's and ketones which disappeared at 800 °c and favor the exposure of porous structural surfaces which enhance the adsorption capacity. Relatively high amount of carbon with respect to oxygen was found with the increase in activation temperature. First order, Bangham, Elovich, parabolic diffusion and power function equations were found to fit the kinetic adsorption data. The reaction rate increased with the increase in temperatures of adsorption/ activation. Thermodynamic parameters like LtE", LtH", LtS" and LtG" were calculated. The negative values of LtS" reflect the decrease in the disorder of the system at the solid,solution interface, during adsorption. Gibbs free energy (LtG"), represent the driving force for the affinity of dye for the carbon and it increased with the increase in adsorption/ activation temperature. The positive value of LtH" shows the endothermic of adsorption and decreases with the increase in adsorption/activation temperature. Batch studies showed that isotherm equations of Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich are applied to the data
Coupled Transport of Zr Ions from Different Acid Feed Aqueous Solutions using Carboxylic Acids as Stripping Agents


Transport of Zr ions through tri-n-octylamine and di-cylohexylamine xylene based liquid membranes supported in polypropylene microporous films has been studied and found that HNOJ is a better acid in the feed and water and methyl-succinic acid are the stripping agents which can be used to transport Zr ions. The values of flux (J) and permeability coefficient (p) for Zr (IV) ions under optimum conditions from HNOJ feeds to water stripping phase across the membranes are 19.4x J 0.6 mol.m·'.s·' and 19.90x I 0.10 m'.s·'respectlvley. In case of methyl succinic acid as stripping agent the values of J and Pare 1.9x 10.6 mol.nf'.s·land 1.78xI0·" m'.s·' respectively. Di-cyclo-hexylamine is not a slIltable camel' to separate Zr iom using coupled transport system
Solubility Enhancements of Trichloroethene and Perchloroethene by Mixed Surfactant


Solubility enhancements of trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethene (peE) and their mixture (TCE-PCE) by mixed nonionic and anionic surfactant, Triton X-IOO (TXIOO) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SOBS) in ONAPU water systems were presented. Their solubilization extent of TCE by mixed TX I OO-SOBS at the total mass ratios of 3: I, I: I and I: 3 was much larger than by single TX1 00 and even larger than by single SOBS at ratios of 1: I and I: 3. The solubilization extent of PCE by mixed TXIOO-SOBS was between those by single TXIOO and single SOBS. In the mixed TCE-PCE system, the solubilization extent of TCE or PCE by mixed TX I OO-SOBS at the ratios of I: I and I: 3 was larger than by single SOBS while less than by single TXIOO at a greater surfactant concentration. TXIOO partitioning into the organic phase dictated the solubilization extent. SOBS reduced greatly the partition loss of TX I 00 into organic phase. The extent of partition decreased with increasing the amount of SOBS. The mutual affinity of SOBS and TXIOO in the mixed micelle controlled the partitioning ofTXIOO into ONAPL phase.
Geo-Chemical and Beneficiation Studies of Yakhtangi (Swat) Silica Sand for Industrial Utilization


Present study is an attempt to describe geochemical and industrial potential of Yakhtangi (District Swat) sand deposits, which are exposed within a distance of several hundred meters along the metalled road. Chemical composition, grain size distribution and physical characteristics of sand samples were investigated in order to check their suitability for utilization in glass industry. Samples were subjected to physical treatment to minimize iron content. About 60 % reduction of Fe10.1 content has been achieved as a result of grading and water washing. The sand was found suitable for the manufacturing of ordinary container glass. Some simple upgradation techniques enhance its ability to be utilized for high quality container glass manufacturing. The Yakhtangi silica sand deposits occur along the metalled road at 33 km distance from Alpuri towards Shanglapar. These deposits are exposed within the area of several hundred meters at a height upto 1189 m from mean sea level and within 1.5 to 61 m from the metalled road. The deposits are easily accessible. 
Ultrasonic Degradation Studies of Polyacrylates


Ultrasonic degradation studies of poly(methylmethacrylate; PMMA) and poly(butyl methacrylate; PBMA) m solutions are reported. Measurements of the molar mass distribution usmg gel permeation chromatography indicate very little evidence of degradation for shorter cham PMMA. For the higher molar mass PBMA. a progressive decrease in the number and weIght average molar mass was observed. The molar mass distribution progressively narrowed with mcrease m ultrasonic irradiation time. A decrease in viSCOSity of PBMA solution was also observed with increasmg irradiation time. The results show that there IS limiting molar mass below which significant ultrasonic degradation is not possible at the applied frequency of 20 kHz. 
Environmental Geochemistry of the Soils of Peshawar Basin, N.W.F.P., Pakistan

Muhammad Tahir Shah ,SHAHINA TARIQ ,

Peshawar basin is situated at the southern footh1l\s of the lesser Himalayas in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan It IS mainly composed of the Quaternary fluvial and lacustnne sediments. The SOil of the basin has been classified Into Peshawar piedmont soil, Peshawar floodplain soil and Peshawar lacustrine soil. These SOils of have been evaluated for major, minor, trace and heavy metals The chemical analyses of these soils shov-ed that the concentration of SIO" TiO" Fe,03 and MnO are III the range of normal soil. However, AI,03. MgO, ('aO, Na,O, K,O and P,O, and all the analyzed trace and heavy metals, except Co, were higher than the limits reported for normal soil. The soils of certain areas of the Peshawar piedmont and the Peshawar tloodplain had trace and heavy metals in very high concentratIOns and should be further investigated for thell effects on the ecosystem The high concentratIOns of CaO, NaO and K,O In these soils could be attributed to the water-logging and salinity in the area while l11gh MgO, Cu, NI and ('I' could be correlated With the rocks of the Dargai ultramafic complex and the high P,O, could be either contnbuted by alkaline rocks or fertilizers or both 
Biosorption of Pb (II) by Local Gram (Cicer arietinum) Cultivar Biomass


Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal and recovery of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions, In this paper. the comparative adsorption properties of non-treated and basically pre-treated pods biomass of local gram cultivar (LGC) biomass with NaOH, Ca(OHh and AI(OH)) for Pb (II) uptake was investigated, Equilibrium isotherms and kinetics results were obtained from batch adsorption experiments. The biosorption capacities were solution pH dependent and the maximum capacity obtained was 34.28 mgl g at a solution pH of about 5 The biosorption kinetics was found to be fast, with most of adsorption within 240 min and equilibrium reached at 480 min. This study demonstrated that the NaOH pre-treated pods biomass of LGC could be used as an effective biosorbent for the treatment of Pb (II) containing wastewater streams. 
Analytical Investigation of Li+ Na+ K+ Ca2+ and Mg2+ Levels in Human Blood Serum of Cholistan Desert Population


Hot, arid and sandy Cholistan deserl livlOg people have poor food habit due to their low socIOeconomIc status. Thirty indIvidual's blood samples were ana lysed by alomlC absorption spectrophotometer. Average levels were for Ll' (9.79 ± 2), Na + (3 I 13 ± 2), K' (156 ± 3), Ca'+ (109 ± 2) and Mg'+ (35 ± 9). Li+ and Ca'+ were observed higher than the normal person levels, Na+ and K+ within the normal range and variable levels for Mg" were also found. A strong positive correlation was observed by pairs like Na'-K+ (r = 0.465), Na'-Ca'+ (r = 0.376) and K+-Ca'+ (r = 0.360) and negative correlation was observed by pairs like Li'­Na+ (r = -0.091), Li'-K+ (r = -0.036) and K+-Mg'+ (r = -0059) All levels have showed negative skewness except for Mg'+ and posItive Kurlosis for Na' and K+.
Evaluation of Water Quality of Different Colleges of Karachi City


The quality of dnnk1l1g water is equally Important for every human being and when the concerned consumer of water IS a young citizen, the Importance of evaluation of drink,"g water quality becomes more eVident In the present study twenty three (23) samples of dnnklng water, collected from different colleges of Karachi city were evaluated for different phySical and chcnllcal parameters. The concentration of major chemical constituents like calcium, magnesIUm, sodium, potaSSium, chlonde, sulfate and fluonde were analyzed," the range of (33-48) mgl L,(9-80) mg L, (30-470) mg/ L, (4.9-7. I) mg/ L, (42- 688) mg/ L (32­214) mgl Land (075-1 13) mg L respectively. The quality of this water was compared with USEPA and WHO dnnking water standards and was found to be with," the permissible Iimlls in all of the samples excluding one, collected from Zamzama College, Clifton, whereas with reference to the concentration of nitrate 48 % samples were found to be with elevated levels of nitrate as nitrogen, according to both the WHO and USEPA guidelines, making the water unfit for human consumption. Further more data was statistically evaluated by normal distribution analysis 


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