VOLUME 32, NO5, OCT 2010
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Characterization of Essential Oil of Local Varieties of Citrus paradisi Peel

Muhammad Naeem Khan ,

The essential oil from Citrus paradisi peel was analyzed for its chemical composition. The GC and GC/MS studies of the essential oil revealed the presence of 23 constituents; out of which 15 constituents were identified as: µ-Pinene (0.4405 %), b-Pinene (2.5129 %), Limonene (81.862 %), r-Cymene (3.6917 %), Linalyl acetate (5.206 %), Sabinene (1.025 %), 4-Terpineol (0.389 %), µ-Terpineol (0.3181 %), µ-Thugene (0.2813 %), Octanol (0.2698 %), 1,8-Cineol (0.4255 %), Geraniol (0.2106 %), Decanal (0.1679 %).
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Catalytic Conversion of Waste Low Density Polyethylene into Valuable Products

Fazal Mabood ,

Waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) from household and industries are recognized to be a major environmental problem. LDPE represent a source of energy and valuable chemical products. Waste LDPE were pyrolysed catalytically in a batch reactor under atmospheric pressure. Calcium carbide was used as a catalyst to explore its effect on pyrolysis product distribution. The effects of temperature, amount of catalyst and time on the yields of the pyrolysed products were investigated. The effect of catalyst on the liquid yield was also studied. The results demonstrate that the temperature has a promising effect on the yield; however, high temperature, as well as high catalyst loading, caused a decline in liquid yield. The liquid obtained from catalytic pyrolysis of polyethylene was characterized physically by Density, Specific gravity, API gravity, Viscosity, Kinematic viscosity, Aniline point, Flash point, Watson characterization constant, Freezing point, Diesel index, Refractive Index, Gross calorific value, Net calorific value and ASTM Distillation were determined according to IP and ASTM standard methods for determination of fuel values. Results from the physical analysis of the liquid fractions are comparable with the standards used (gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel oil). Phenols and carbonyls were also quantitatively determined by spectrophotometric methods using folin-denis and phenyl hydrazine reagents, respectively. The components of different hydrocarbons in the oil mixture were separated by using column chromatography and fractional distillation.
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Effect of Temperature on Sequestration of Cu(II) from Aqueous Solution onto Turmeric Powder

Amtul Qayoom ,

In this work effect of temperature on adsorption of Cu(II) onto turmeric powder was investigated in order to understand sequestrating behavior of turmeric powder. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R equilibrium models were employed and changes in equilibrium parameters with changing temperature have been discussed. Various thermodynamic parameters such as ?Hº, ?Gº and ?Sº have been calculated. It was found that with increase in temperature maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(II) increase which showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) onto turmeric powder is endothermic. ?Hº and Ea values also confirmed the same trend. Entropy values showed increased in randomness with increasing temperature. Gibbs free energies were non spontaneous at all the temperatures studied. E values were in the range of 2.89-3.53KJmol-1, which indicated that adsorption is essentially of physical nature. The value of S* is much less than 1 indicating favourable sticking of adsorbate to adsorbent with physiosorption mechanism predominant.
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Evaluation of Selenium Content of Plant Samples Collected from Indigenous Sources for Se-supplementation

Tariq Mahmud ,

Selenium contents were evaluated in different plant species such as Canola (Brassica napus), Sunflower (Helianthus annus), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Soyabean Seeds (Glycine max) and Akk (Calotropis procera) in order to access their possibility for Se-supplementation. The dry ash of bulb of Turmeric and seeds of Canola, Sunflower, and Soyabean were digested in concentrated HNO3, HClO4 and HCl to obtain selenium (IV). After adding different reagents, stable blue colored complex was formed. From this colored complex, selenium (IV) was determined by UV/visible spectrophotometer. This work was carried out in an attempt to obtain information concerning the amount of selenium present in different plants. It was observed that Akk is a good accumulator of selenium as it contains almost 30 μg selenium per gram and can be used for different medicinal applications.
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Characterization of Beta Zeolites by X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, and Refractive Index Techniques

Sher Akbar ,

Lithium and sodium beta zeolites (Li-BEA, Na-BEA) by aqueous ion exchange at 65 °C and protonic beta zeolite (H-BEA) by deammoniation of NH4-BEA at 540 °C were prepared. The crystallinity and morphology of all the samples of beta zeolite were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques.The hydrophobic and hydrophilic property was measured by refractive index technique. The measurements of the pH of the slurries 4% (g/mL) of parent beta zeolite (NH4-BEA),H-BEA, cation exchanging slurries and cation exchanged beta zeolites indicated the occurring of the process of ion-exchange. The lowest pH (3.2) was recorded for the ion-exchanging slurry of H-BEA by LiCl and NaCl solutions due to the formation of hydrochloric acid (HCl) during the cation- exchange process. Among the beta zeolites studied the proton form (H-BEA) showed that it was stable in the highly acidic reaction medium.
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Electrochemical Behavior of Vinblastine Sulfate at Platinum in Acetonitrile

Inam ul Haque ,

Cyclic, normal-pulse, reverse-normal-pulse, differential-pulse and square-wave voltammetry of vinblastine sulfate was investigated in acetonitrile containing 0.2 M sodium perchlorate without and with 21.4 mM pyridine present in the background solution. Vinblastine sulfate gave a single anodic peak representing irreversible electrochemical oxidation in all cases. Behavior of vinblastine sulfate was similar in the presence/absence of pyridine. Well-formed voltammograms were obtained in the absence of pyridine.
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Impacts of Solid Waste Leachate on Groundwater and Surface Water Quality

Khurshed Ahmed ,

The present investigation was carried out to assess the impacts of solid waste leachate on groundwater and surface water quality at unlined dumping site. Six leachate samples collected from different locations have average values of COD and BOD 2563 mg/L and 442 mg/L, respectively. Surface water samples were collected in two different seasons (rainy and non- rainy). Samples collected during non-rainy season were found to be more contaminated than rainy season. Soil samples collected from the depth of 1.5 m are contaminated with heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe & Zn) and E.coli. Presence of E.coli shows that leachate has deteriorated groundwater quality.
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Calibration of Shahid’s Analytical Method for Adulterated Zn-EDTA Fertilizers by Ion Chromatography and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

Muhammad salik Khan ,

Chelated zinc fertilizers are usually recommended in calcareous alkaline soils to provide Zn nutrition in order to prevent possible Zn precipitation. In Punjab (Pakistan), Zn.EDTA products are being manufactured, and marketed to meet the zinc requirement of various crops grown in Zn deficient soils. Under fertilizer control order, 1973 (amended), their quality has to be monitored by the Agriculture Department, Government of the Punjab. None of the traditional method was found suitable which can separate the mineral fraction from that of chelated adulterated fertilizer except for those methods based on ion chromatography. Calibration of ion chromatography method was carried out by determining the mineral Zn fraction leading to estimate remaining Zn.EDTA fraction in fertilizer samples of adulterated nature i.e. mixture of chelated and mineral fraction. In order to achieve the objective atomic absorption spectroscopy was coupled with ion chromatography. The method offers a specific, reliable technique for determination of chelated zinc in fertilizers. In the first step chelation was broken down with concentrated sulphuric acid treatment and total zinc contents were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In second step, non-chelated (mineral) portion of zinc was determined by ion chromatography using cation column and conductivity detector. Chelated zinc was calculated by subtracting non-chelated (mineral) fraction from total zinc contents.
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Assessment of Iodine Status among Hostel Employees and Students of a University in Islamabad, Pakistan

Muhammad Tufail ,

Iodine deficiency and related disorders are the major health hazard in the world, especially along the Himalayas. A study has been carried out to assess the status of iodine in students and employees living in the hilly area in the premises of a university in Islamabad, Pakistan. The study was carried out for 76 students living in university hostels and 32 employees serving in the hostels. Urinary iodide excretion (UIE) was used as the biochemical marker of iodine concentration in the donors. Catalytic kinetic method based on Sandell–Kolthoff reaction was employed for the measurement of iodine concentration in the samples of urine. Out of 76 students, 8% had UIE ≥ 100 mg/L, while 39% had between 50-99 mg/L, 49% had between 20-49 mg/L and 4% had < 20 mg/L, resulting in mild, moderate and severe iodine deficiency, respectively. Similarly, out of 32 employees, 22% had UIE ≥ 100 mg/L while 28% had between 50-99 mg/L, 44% had between 20-49 mg/L and 6% had < 20 mg/L, resulting in mild, moderate and severe iodine deficiency, respectively. Target groups of the study area were iodine deficient, indicating mild to severe iodine deficiency. The iodine level in the employees was relatively better than that in the students. Improvement of iodine status is recommended among the students and employees by the mandatory use of iodized salt in all the cafeterias of the university.
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Econometrics Models for Copper Recovery: A Case Study of North Waziristan-Copper Deposits

Sardar Ali ,

Fourteen econometrics models have been developed to evaluate the effects of various flotation process variables like, Propylxanthate (X1 g/tonne), pH (X2,) Sodium Cyanide (X3 g/tonne), Sodium sulphide (X4 g/tonne), Frother (X5 g/tonne), Pulp density (X6 w/vol), and Conditioning time (X7 minute) on the copper recovery YR North Waziristan-NWFP Pakistan. Ordinary Least Square OLS method has been applied as an analytical technique for regression analysis. It has been concluded in this study that model given in equation 7 is best model among all. This equation shows that with the increase of one unit of X1, YR will increase 0.05 units keeping all other variables constant.
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