Efficient and Reusable Silica Gel Supported Metal Ionic Liquid Catalysts for Palmitic Acid Esterification to Biodiesel

A series of silica gel (SG) supported metal ionic liquid catalysts (x[Bmim]Cl-CrCl3/SG) were synthesized and exploited for the esterification of palmitic acid (PA) with methanol (ML) to produce biodiesel efficiently. The 10%[Bmim]Cl-CrCl3/SG catalyst with high surface area and desirable acidity exhibited the best catalytic performance and reusability after six consecutive running cycles. Based on the response surface analysis, the optimal reaction conditions were obtained as follows: methanol/acid mole ratio = 11:1 mol/mol, catalyst amount = 5.3 wt%, reaction time = 65 min, as well as reaction temperature = 373 K, reaching to a biodiesel yield of 96.1%. Further kinetic studies demonstrated that the esterification of PA with ML obeyed 1.41 order kinetics for acid concentration with the activation energy of 16.88 kJ/molread more

Guo Yingwei, Chen Xuedan, Yan Shiting, Zhang Zhengliang, Chen Yuqin, Zheng Lina Zhu Guangqi and Han Xiaoxiang

Characterization of Synthesized SnO2 Nanoparticles and its Application for the Photo Catalytic Degradation of Eosin Y in Aqueous Solution

The synthesized oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles by sol-gel method were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-rays diffraction(XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Using X-rays diffraction analysis different parameter were calculated such as crystallite size, d-spacing, dislocation density, number of unit cell, cell volume, morphological index, micro strain and instrumental broadening. The average particle size was 28.396 nm. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that SnO2 nanopartcles are uniformly distributed. Optical properties such as band gap (energy gap = 3.6 eV) was calculated from UV-Visible spectroscopy. The characterized particles were used as photocatalyst for the degradation of Eosin dye in aqueous solution under UV light. The effect of different parameters i.e irradiation time, initial dye concentration, pH of the medium and catalyst weight on percent degradation was also studied. Mmaximum dye degradation was found at 220 minutes time interval that was 92 % using 10 ppm solution. At pH 5 the degradation of dye was found to be 94%. The catalyst dose of 0.06 g was found to be the optimum weight for the best photo catalytic degradation of Eosin Y.read more

Fazal Akbar Jan, Muhammad Aamir, Naimat Ullah and Husaain Gulab

A Density Functional Theory Study of the Isomerization of Substituted 2'-hydroxychalcones to the Corresponding Flavanones

The transformation of 2'-hydroxychalcones to their corresponding flavanones was studied theoretically by the use of the density functional theory (DFT) with B3-LYP/ 6-311G basis set to get important information about the role of both of electronic and structural properties in this process. The obtained energies were found to be in agreement with our previous results that obtained from HPLC studies. The estimated hardness, polarizability, and electrophilicity profiles were found to obey the maximum hardness principle (MHP), minimum polarizability principle (MPP), and the minimum electrophilicity principle (MEP) respectively. Flavanone ring closure was found to be the rate-determining step.read more

Said Abdelqadar Said, Omar A Shareef and Abdulkhalik S. Alkazzaz

Morphology, Properties and Application of Iron Oxide/Polycaprolactone Nanocomposites

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Fe2O3/PCL nanocomposites sheets/films were prepared by solution casting method. The morphological study illustrated that Fe2O3 nanoparticles were dispersed and embedded well within the PCL matrix. The size of Fe2O3 nanoparticles were below 250 nm. The thermal stability of Fe2O3/PCL nanocomposites was lower than neat PCL, which might be due to Fe2O3 (act as catalyst during the thermal degradation of PCL). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses show that the crystallization temperature of the nanocomposites was slightly enhanced as compared to neat PCL. The polarized optical microscopy (POM) analyses showed that the size of Fe2O3/PCL nanocomposites spherulites were smaller than neat PCL. The photodegradation study presented that the nanocomposites photodegraded higher quantity of rhodamine B dye as compared to neat PCL. The neat PCL degraded about 24 and 72% while Fe2O3 (6 wt%)/PCL nanocomposites degraded about 72 and 98% of dye within 2 and 10 h, respectively.read more

Khalid Saeed, Noshi Khan, Tariq Shah and Muhammad Sadiq

Thermodynamic Properties of Rifampicin Redox Current Peaks in Human Blood Samples Using Nano-Sensor (Carbon Nanotubes / Glassy Carbon Electrode)

The cyclic voltammetric electrochemical technique was utilized to investigate the effect of different temperatures on the redox current peaks of rifampicin (RF), a drug commonly used to treat many diseases including tuberculosis (TB), in vitro for human blood medium. A modified working electrode of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon nanotube (CNT) (CNT / GCE) was used as a sensitive nano-sensor to evaluate the impact of temperature on the blood medium in the presence of RF ions. The results confirmed the presence of two oxidation and one reduction current peaks of RF in blood medium at 0.5, 1, and -0.5 V respectively. The redox current peaks of RF ions in blood medium were enhanced with increasing the temperature from 20 to 36oC. The activation energy (E*) values were determined by applying Arrhenius equation with oxidative and anti-oxidative peaks of Ea*(Ipa)= 9.252 and 11.026 kJ.mol-1.K-1,respectively. Other thermodynamic functions such as the change in each of activation Enthalpy (ΔH*), activation Gibbs energy (ΔG*) and activation Entropy (ΔS*) values were estimated using Eyring equation. The present results of the effects of different temperatures on the blood status in presence of RF lead to the explanation of the oxidative stress of the drug which used in an inflammatory of blood at different temperature.read more

Sura Ali AL-ASADI, Muhammed Mizher RADHI and Wisam Hindawi HOIDY

Synthesis, Characterization and Biocompatibility of Holmium Zirconate/Zinc Sulphide Nanocomposite in Albino Mice in a Gender Specific Manner

Aim of this study was to report the biocompatibility of Holmium zirconate, zinc sulphide and holmium zirconate/zinc sulphide (HO2Zr2O7/ZnS) nanocomposite in albino mice. Holmium zirconate, zinc sulphide and holmium zirconate/zinc sulphide (Ho2Zr2O7/ZnS) nanocomposite were synthesized by, normal microemulsion, chemical co-precipitation and two step synthesis method, respectively. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the confirmation of phase while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used morphological analysis. The composition and the particle size distribution were confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy and particle size analysis respectively. Seven week old mice were divided into two groups in a gender specific manner: control group that were intraperitoneally injected with saline solution and treated group were administered with 50 mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight of Holmium zirconate/zinc sulphide nanocomposite for 22 days. A series of neurological tests, blood cell count, selected serum parameters and biomarkers of oxidative stress were analysed in vital organs of both treatments. It was observed that nanocomposite treated female mice remained mobile (P = 0.05) for longer time while both male (P = 0.03) and female (P = 0.02) mice had more rotations than saline treated mice during open field test. Nanocomposite treated male had reduced stretch attend reflex during light dark box test. Blood and serum parameters remained unaffected (P ˃ 0.05) when compared between nanocomposite treated and untreated mice of both genders. Malondialdehyde concentration was significantly elevated (P = 0.04) in liver of male while superoxide dismutase concentrations were significantly reduced (P = 0.05) in brain of female albino mice treated with nanocomposite than their respective control groups.read more

Hafsa Noureen, Mubashra Salim, Amjad Nadeem, Sana Shafiq, Samia Yousuf, Noreen Samad, Muhammad Naeem Ashiq and Furhan Iqbal

Manganese Schiff Base Immobilized on Graphene Oxide Complex and Its Catalysis for Epoxidation of Styrene

Immobilization of metal complexes on solid supports is an efficient approach to circumvent the drawbacks of homogeneous catalysis. In this paper, using graphene oxide as carrier, manganese Schiff base supported on graphene oxide (Salen Mn-GO) was prepared through aminosilane covalent modification as well as salicylaldehyde condensation and coordination reaction. The structures and properties of the composite were examined by FT-IR, XRD, XPS, TEM, TG techniques, and the catalytic performance of Salen Mn-GO in styrene epoxidation was explored. The effects of catalyst and styrene amount as well as that of reaction time on the performance of the catalyst were investigated. The results showed that Salen Mn-GO has excellent catalytic activity and reusability for epoxidation of styrene in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Finally, the mechanism of styrene epoxidation catalyzed by Salen Mn-GO has been preliminarily discussed.read more

Shuisheng Wu, Donghui Lan, Nianyuan Tan, Ran Wang, Chak-Tong Au, Bing Yi

Functionalization of Cellulose Paper by Coating Nano Metal-Organic Frameworks for Use as Photochromic Material

The cellulose paper-based functional materials modified by Zn-NDI and Cu-NDI were prepared by the coating method. The chemical structures were characterized by FTIR, XRD, UV-vis and SEM, and the photochromic properties of the composite functional materials were studied. The results showed that Zn-NDI and Cu-NDI were successfully prepared and retained on the surface of copy paper, the wavelength of photochromic reaction is between 300-400 nm of MOFs materials. Optical analysis confirmed that the NDI/paper, Zn-NDI/paper and Cu-NDI/paper changed from tan to wheat, light green to olive, and dark tan to brown after 60 seconds of exposure to hernia light irradiations, the MOFs coated paper returned to its original color when it was placed in the dark for 4 hours. The above results indicated that the prepared Zn-NDI and Cu-NDI coated paper composites exhibited excellent photochromic ability and had potential applications in the field of anti-counterfeiting packaging materials.read more

Qiang Yang, Wei Gong, Xiaowei Cui, Chunsheng Zhou

A New 2D Zn(II) Coordination Polymer Constructed by Flexible 2 methylimidazole Ligand Exhibiting Good Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B

A new zinc(II)-coordination polymer, [Zn(5-AIP)(BMIOPE)·2H2O]n (1) (BMIOPE=4,4'-bis (2-methylimidazol-1-yl) diphenyl ether, 5-H2AIP=5-aminoisophthalic acid) were hydrothermally synthesized. 1 possesses a 2D layer based on opposite-handed helical chains. Furthermore, 1 displays good photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB).read more

Xin-Yue Zhang, Mei-Li Xu, Jun Qing Lv, Xiao-Juan Xu and Jun Wang

Fast Measurement of Lipid Content of Oleaginous Yeast Trichosporon dermatis Cultured in Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates Using Fluorescent Method

To avoid complex procedures in measurement of lipid content of oleaginous yeast especially for that can accumulate microbial lipid in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, fluorescent method using Nile Red as fluorescent dye was applied to measure lipid content of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon dermatis. The fluorescent method was built by fitting of lipid content identified by both conventional gravimetric method and fluorescence intensity of oleaginous yeast. Within the range of lipid content measured, the fitting curves showed linear relationship with good correlation coefficient (R2=0.95), showing this method is suitable for measuring lipid content of T. dermatis in the simulated medium. To evaluate the applicability of this method for lipid fermentation using lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates as substrate, T. dermatis was cultured in corncob acid hydrolysate and rice straw acid hydrolysate and then its lipid content measured by both fluorescent method and gravimetric method were compared. The results showed that the lipid content measured by these two methods were close, therefore, this method was promising for the application in lipid fermentation in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates.read more

Cheng Zhao, Qing-Song Yao, Can Wang, Mu-Tan Luo, Chao Huang, Xue-Fang Chen, Lan-Lan Tian, Qian-Lin Huang, Lian Xiong, Hai-Long Li, Xin-De Chen