Impact of Contaminated Vegetables, Fruits and Fodders on Human Health by Malir River Farms Karachi

The present research was designed to determine the geo-chemical sources and mobilization of nine trace elements in samples of plants (vegetables, fruits and fodders), from different part of Karachi. Samples collected from farms located in the basin of and around Malir River (Map. 1) were considered polluted because here the industrial and municipal effluents were used for irrigation and different wastes (poultry, industrial and municipal) used as fertilizers. Samples collected from farms situated 45-k from Karachi along highway and from Sakeran Deh in Hub Map. 1) were considered unpolluted because here water used for irrigation was obtained from wells and fertilizers used was not waste materials. The results of analysis of those samples show that Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb pollution is most common in plants. All other elements are well within the permissible limits. Presence the trace metals focus the extant of pollution in farms of Malir more


Influence of Various Bleaching Agents on Bleaching of Cotton Knitted Fabrics

Bleaching agents are one of the main contributors to the quality and cost of the bleaching. This paper attempts to optimize the quality and cost of the bleaching of cotton knitted fabrics by using various bleaching agents (sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium borate, Urea and sodium triphosphate) at different pH levels. The results revealed that verifying pH levels and different bleaching agents significantly influenced the bleaching properties (whiteness and bleaching loss) of the cotton knitted more


Characterization and Comparative Study of Pakistani Coals by Liquid Adsorption Methods

Coal samples were collected from the four major coal fields i.e. sore Range, Sharigh, Degari and Makerwal Proximate and Ultimate analysis were performed by standard chemical methods. Specific surface area was determined by absorbing methylene blue dye, iodine and water vapors. Methylene blue adsorption was studied by spectrophotometric techniques. Iodine adsorption was estimated by standard volumetric methods and water vapors adsorption by standard gravimetric procedure. Most of the adsorption isotherms obtained from dye (at room temperature) belong to type L of Gilies classification for solution which indicates mesoporous and macro porous nature of these coals. The reasonable long platcau shows saturation of the monolayer the specific surface area from the dye adsorption ranges from 264 m2 g-1 to587 m2 -1. Iodine (from water) gives 111-203 m 2 g -1 and from carbon tetra chloride solution gives 130-211 m2 g -1. Total pore volume (10.46-11.58 cc g-1) and % porosities (86-95 m2 g-1 ) are reported. High ash content (3.75 – 8.19%) and the presence of sulphur (1.54-2.97%) and chlorine (0.05-0.13%) place these coals in the lower more


Water Irrigation Chemistry of Underground Water in Hub Valley, Karachi (Pakistan)

Groundwater samples from existing wells in different farms/villages of Hub valley were collected and analyzed for chemical constituents, Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, CO3- , HCO3 Cl- and SO4- along with their physical properties. The value of total dissolved salts (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of the samples were then calculated to investigate their irrigation chemistry. The overall results show that 44% samples are within safe limit. Whereas 38% are marginal and only 18% samples are hazardous from irrigation point of view. A considerable quantity of Hub dam water, which is presently being used for irrigation in Lasbella district, can be saved for drinking bpurposes by replacing it with well waters to hub valley within safe to marginal limits. Underground water of Hub valley is some what inferior than the underground water of Malir valley from irrigation point of more


Study of Variation in Concentration of Elements in Foods

The present study in aimed at the determination of concentration of diverse elements like Na, Ca, K, Mg, Cu, Fe, Ni, Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn and Pb in material rich food representative samples of wheat flour, spinach ,apple and milk. Variation in elements concentration in food during the day was also determined by collecting samples in the morning and eveni8ng from three busy commercial areas of Rawalpindi at Saidpur Road, Faizabad Chowk and Commercial market seventy-two samples co0llected from three point from each place were dried, grinded and digested in Nitric acid and Perchloric acid and analyzed by atomic Absorption spectrophotometer. Results revealed that concentration that concentration of each element varies with type of food due to their natural occurrence, sampling time and sampling place ranging from 0.01 ppm-14 ppm. It was also revealed that alkali and alkaline earth metals show decrease in concentration in the evening due to their involvements in redox reactions and bond formation with other elements however, Cu, Fe, Ni, Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn and Pb showed increased variation during the day with lead depicting a maximum of 0.78 ppm. It may be due to the deposition of fuel, smoke containing lead on food. Wheat flour, spinach , apple and milk were found to have upper limits of 13.2 ppm of Mg, 4.88 ppm of Cu, 14 ppm of K and 10.1 ppm of Ca respectively. Variations in sampling place regarding increase in concentration of elements of elements during the day was found to follow the order Saidpur Road>Faizabad Chowk > commercial Market due to comparatively more divers traffic and vendor stands in the first two more


Determination of FE (III) with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol in Micellar Medium by Derivative Spectrophotometry

A spectrophotometric and first derivative spectrophotometric determination of iron(III) is carried out with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol as complexing reagents in aqueous phase using non-ionic surfactant. Tween 40. The iron is determined in the range 1.7-120 ng mL-1 with detection limit (2α) of 1.7 ng mL-1. The molar absorptivity and sandell’s sensitivity are 1.69 x (104 mol-1 cm-1) and 7.9 ng cm-2 at 446c nm. The optimum pH of the complex is 1. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of Tween 40 is 5%. Absorption maximum of the complex for higher sensitivity and to overcome interference due to presence of certain metals ions. The presents method is compared with that of AAS and no significant difference is noted between the two methods at 95% confidence level. The method has been applied has been applied for the determination of Fe(III) in industrial waste water and steel samples.  read more


Effect of Concentration of Al2(SO4)318H2O on the Synthesis of Nanosized Alumina

Nanosized alumina has been prepared by the lgelation of the solution containing aluminium sulphate and urea followed by low temperature calcinations. The effect of different concentrations on pH and its ultimate effect on gelation were studied. Gel formation occurred in the solutions containing 1:20 salt/urea ratio. Aluminum hydroxide and nanoparticles of alumina were characterized by SEM. DTA and TG. The process describes the formation of aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3 and its thermal decomposition to Aluminum hydroxide AlOOH and finally to aluminum oxide Al2O3. nanoparticles of alumina produced were spherical with average particle size of 200 more


Analytical Investigation of Soil Inorganic Elements in Cotton Cultivated Areas of Vehari - Pakistan

Soil inorganic elements have their influence on different crop production. Split samples collected from different areas of Vehari were analysed for moisture contents. pH, Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Cl-, SO2- and silica. Inorganic elements were found to be higher in HCL soluble soil samples than the water-soluble soil sample. pH was observed higher (7.3-8.4) than the optimum pH required for normal crop cultivation. The soil samples of study area were also found to be deficient in potassium, magnesium and calcium contents and rich in lithium, sodium, iron and aluminum more


Estimination of Metal Contents in Different Varients of Milk Available in Karachi City

Milk is generally considered as nutrionally balanced food for human beings of all age groups. It contains different type of metals and the concentration of metal contents varies with the variety of milk. The presence of metals may be natural or due to contamination. Therefore, in order to have an assessment of the dielectic intake of metals by consumers, sodium, copper, manganese and chromium were studied in different varieties of powder milk, fresh milk and processed milk, available in the markets in Karachi city. The range of content of sodium, copper, manganese and chromium was found to be ( 492-1366) mg/I, (0.227-0.652) mg/I, (0.044-0.102) mg/I respectively. The result are discussed with reference to WHO Guidelines and data on metal contents in infant formula milk in USA, UK and more


Determination of adenosine 5’-triphosphate by Flow Injection with Luminol Chemiluminescence Detection Using Immobilized Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme Reactor

A flow injection method is described for the determination of adenosine 5-triphsophate using immobilized alkaline phopsphatase based on luminal chemiluminescence detection. The molybdophosphoric heteropoly acid formed by phosphate and ammonium molybdate in acidic condition generated chemiluminescence emission by the oxidation of luminal. The detection limit (2s) was 1.0 x 10-7 M with a sample throughput of 45 h-1. The calibration graph was linear over the range 2.0-10 x 10-6 M (r2= 0.9987) with relative a support for alkaline phosphate immobilization and the immobilized enzymes showed good stability, and no deterioration in enzymes activity was recorded after use for three more