Effect of desizing modes on dyed cotton fabrics for colourfastness to sunlight and perspiration

Desizing is applied to the yarn for ease in weaving process. In this study, three different desizing modes i.e., water, acid and enzymatic were used. The samples were bleached in Salomatic bleaching process. Finally samples were dyed with direct, sulphur and reactive dyes. colourfastness to sunlight and perspiration were checked on grey scale. The sizing material was removed efficiently by the enzymatic desizing mode. However, the different dyes showed somewhat similar colourfastness to sunlight and perspiration.read more


Measurement of lead and heavy metal accumulation in the soils of urban area of Karachi

Lead and heave metal accumulation in the soils of urban area or karachi has been determined. The measurement of these heavy metal accumulation in soil appears to be a useful tool for evaluating the potential hazard of the environment. Samples of the soils were collected from various intersections of major roads where traffic density was very high. The range of average concentration of lead was around 61 to 635 ppm, copper 58 to 196 ppm, manganese 64 to 186 pm and zinc was 56 to 301 ppm. The gravitational sedimentation and impact on vegetation of coarse fraction is responsible for the high lead contamination of vegetation and soils. The data collected shows that almost all the pollution is being generated by automobile exhaust in the urban area of Karachi. Soil acts as important sink for pollutants released through different activities.read more


Kinetics of formation of Fe(III) complexes of 3,4,5 trihydroxybenzoic acid

3,4,5, Trihydroxybenzoic acid (Gallic acid) is a strong chelating agent and forms complexes of high stability constants with Iron(III), Ligand concentration and pH dependence: of kinetics of formation of monogallatotetraaquoiron(III) complex were studied in various acetate buffers of pH 3.84 to 5.0. Pseudo first order rate constants (with ligand in excess) were found to increase with pH as well as increasing, concentration of the ligand but level off at higher concentration of ligand. A rate law was derived and the mechanism for the formation of monogallatotetraaquoiron(III) was proposed which complies with the rate law.read more


Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of the complexes of tumor cell differentiating agent hexamethylene bisacetamide with manganese and cobalt halides

The syntheses of the complexes of tumor cell differentiating agent hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) with manganese (II) and cobalt(II) halides which include M-2(HMBA)(3)X-4 (M = Mn and Co; X = Cl cut Br) have been reported. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and their structures have been established on the basis of their electronic spectra, e.s.r. spectra and magnetic susceptibilities. All these complexes have been assigned the mixed octahedral-tetrahedral structures and similar to the corresponding nickel complexes [1], can correctly be formulated as [M(HMBA)(3)][MX4].read more


4-N,N-di-ethylamino-3-penten-2-one complexes of some metals of first transition series

Complexes of 4-N,N-diethylamino-3-penten-2-one with Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were synthesized and characterized. Physical characteristics, analytical data and spectroscopic studies are reported. The compounds are very stable and are obtained in good yields.read more


Selected trace metal levels in common vegetables grown in NWFP, Pakistan

Seventeen vegetables procured from local markets of Peshawar nod its suburbs were analyzed using wet digestion atomic absorption method for Ee, As, ph, Hg Cd, Cr, and Ni. The families investigated were: Cucurbitaceae; Solanaceae, Cruciferae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Umbelliferae and Zingiberaceae. The heavy metal data are reported at 99% (+/-2S) confidence level for triplicate measurements on subsamples of a given sample with an overall reproducibility of 2% compared with standard material samples. Comparison of averages thought t-test indicates that each vegetable group is distinctly different from the other in terms of metal content, Maximum iron was present in garlic, at 4.585 mu g/g dry weight (edible part-stem) of the Liliaceae: family. Arsenic was found to be below detection limit in all the vegetable groups. Lead level were quite low: maximum, concentration (0.0200 mu g/g dry weight) was found in karaila (edible part-fruit). Mercury levels were relatively higher, with maximum concentration (2.590 mu g/g, dry weight) in gem (edible part-stem). The levels of nickel were moderately higher, being maximum (2.375 mu g/g dry weight) in karaila, The overall content of trace metals appeared to be within limits laid down internationally for safe human consumption, with only a few exceptions.read more


Formation of soluble complexes of oxovanadium(IV), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) with antibiotic (-)-tetracycline in water

The complex forming ability of (-)-tetracycline with VO(IV), Co(II) and Ni(II) has been examined through circular dichroism. At pH 3.65-4.0 in aqueous solution, the chiral antibiotic forms soluble complexes of varying composition: [VO((-)-TC)(2)H2O](2+), [Co((-)-TC)(3)](2+) and [Ni-2((-)-TC)(H2O)(x)](4+). The CD spectra of these complexes in aqueous solution enable interpretation of the electronic excitations to upper levels of the metal ions.read more


Raman spectral studies of the complexes of biuret with metal(II) halides

As the biuret can adopt either the cis- or the trans-configuration in its complexes, the Raman spectra have been measured for the complexes of biuret with metal(II) halides and the modes of coordination, of ligand in all these complexes,have been established. The complexes N(biuret)(2)X-2 (M = Mn & Co; X = Cl or Br and M = Ni and Zn; X = Cl) have been found to contain biuret in the cis-configuration, coordinating with metal ions through both of its carbonyl oxygen atoms. On the other hand, complexes M(biuret)(2)Cl-2 (M = Ca, Cd and Hg) and Cd(biuret)(2)Br-2 contain biuret in the trans-configuration, coordinating through one of the two carbonyl oxygen atoms. These results are consistent with the previously reported I.R and E.S.R. spectral studies [1,2].read more


Complexes of 1,2-dipiperidinoethane with transition and representative metals

1,2-Dipiperidinoethane (DPE) reacts wit divalent first row transition and representative metals to give complexes of the stiochiometry. MLX2 when L=DPE, M=Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II)X = Cl-. Br-, I- and NO3-. The ligand and complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, room temperature magnetic moment studies, proton NMR, electronic and IR spectra. The ligand in these complexes behaves as bidentate like substituted ethylenediamine coordinating through nitrogen atoms. The solid state IR study and other data support distorted tetrahedral geometry of the type MN2X2.read more


Liquid chromatographic determination of uranium in Laki hot springs using bis(salicylaldehyde)propylenediimine as derivatizing reagent

Preconcentration of uranium from water samples of Laki hot springs has been examined with aluminium oxide, followed by acid dissolution of the precipitate. Precolumn derivatization is carried out with bis(salicylaldehyde)propylenediimine(H(2)SA(2)pn). Elution and separation have been examined from YMC Pack ODS 5 mu m column with a mixture of methanol:acetonitrile:water (60:10:30 v/v/v). Detection UV was at 260 nm. Iron and copper are also detected and are simultaneously quantized with uranium. The amounts of metal ions obtained are within 11-89 mu g/L with coefficient variation (C.V) 2.6-4.5 after preconcentration of 390 times.read more