In the present work, effect of hardness on dyeing of cotton fabric using bi-functional reactive dyes has been investigated. Water hardness due to Ca, Mg & Fe with different anions has been considered. For hardness parameters anions types and concentration are varied during this work. For bi-functional reactive dye parameters, dye shades with variable concentration values have been considered. Effects of these parameters i.e. dye type, concentration, hardness type & its concentration are evaluated by variation in color value, rubbing and washing tests.

Faiza Saleem and Shahid Amin