Clay-based catalysts were synthesised from non-modified bentonite and kaolin by beneficiation, acid modification and hydrothermal treatment. The effects of beneficiation and acid modification on Si/Al, catalyst morphology, mineralogical composition of clay-based catalysts were investigated. Further on, the mineralogical phase identity of the produced clay-based zeolite was studied and compared to that of a commercial zeolite. The produced clay-based zeolite was found to consist dominantly of cuboidal crystals and fits in structural framework and phase of ZSM-5 by 86.92 %. Clay-based catalysts produced in turn showed high activity in the conversion of ethanol to valuable hydrocarbons; at 350 ⁰C and reaction time 6 hours. Bentonite was the most active with 84.95 % conversion among several of raw clays, increasing to 87.3 % upon beneficiation and acid modification. Clay-based zeolite further resulted to highest activity of more than 95 % in ethanol conversion.

Juvet Malonda Shabani and Yusuf Makarfi Isa