Cosmetics have been a part of routine body care not only for the upper classes, but also for the middle and lower classes, since the dawn of civilization. Lightening ingredients, which were previously only used under dermatological supervision, are increasingly being introduced into cosmetic formulations as the public's interest in skin whitening grows. Contamination of cosmetics with heavy metals is a significant concern. Cosmetics containing heavy metals pose a major risk to human health. Heavy metal toxicity in humans has been linked to long-term or high-level exposure to toxins found in the atmosphere, such as air, water, food, and a variety of consumer goods such as cosmetics and toiletries. In the present study, the association between cadmium exposure via cosmetic products (Lipstick (N= 15), Face powder (N= 13), Eye Liner (N= 11) and Eye shadow (N= 15)} and dermatitis cosmetic female patients (N= 252), residing in Hyderabad city, Sindh, Pakistan, was investigated. The matrices of biological (scalp hair, blood, serum and nails) of referents and dermatitis cosmetic female patients (Seborrhoeic dermatitis, Rosacea, Allergic contact dermatitis and Irritant contact dermatitis) and cosmetic samples were oxidized with the help of HNO3 (65%) and H2O2 (30%) mixture at the ratio of 2:1 with the aid of microwave oven. The oxidized biological and cosmetic samples were subjected to electrothermal atomic emission spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The LOD and LOQ for Cd determination in digests samples were found to be 0.81 and 0.28 µg/ L, respectively. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials. The cosmetic products (Lipstick, Face powder, Eye Liner and Eye shadow) of different brands contain Cd, concentrations in the ranges of 1.63– 2.30 μg/g, 0.40 – 0.76 μg/g, 1.05 – 3.60 μg/g and 1.05 – 4.53 μg/g respectively. The outcome of this research significantly showed the higher level of Cadmium in biological specimen (blood and scalp hair) of different types of female dermatitis patients as compared to referent subjects (P<0.001). To ensure human safety and protection, continuous monitoring of cosmetic products, especially with regard to heavy metals adulteration, should be implemented.

Hassan Imran Afridi, Murk Bhatti, Farah Naz Talpur, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Jameel Ahmed Baig, Ghulam Qadir Chanihoon and Almas Rahoojo