Potable Water Quality Characteristics or the Urban Areas or Peshawar (Pakistan) Part 1: Tubewell Water

Water quality of the urban areas of Peshawar was monitored for various physical and chemical parameters. The importance of this reference data, related to the water quality of Peshawar was felt after spreading of some water borne diseases, mainly diarrhea in one of the areas of Peshawar (Sufaid Dheri) during the summer 1999 in which a few people had died and several were hospitalized. Forty three water samples from different tube wells of the urban areas of Peshawar were anaIysed for pH, TDS, TSS, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sodium and potassium. The concentrations of these analyses were found in the ranges; pH (6.0-7.9), IDS (180.20-3S1.82 mWl), TSS (1.0S-4.21 mWl), Electrical conductivity (200-390 mWl), turbidity (0.3-2.1 N11J), total hardness (126.17-4S8.91 mWl) calcium (21.81-90.90 mWl), magnesium (12.S0-80.72 mWl),bicarbonates (132-244 mWl), chloride (10.04-S4.4S mwl), sulphate (16.43-80.28 mWl), nitrate (1.8-3S.2 mWl\), sodium (7.9­74.6 mWl), and potassium (1.6-6.2 mWl), Mean concentration values of the different anaIyses of Peshawar water were also found. Average vales of, pH (7.06±0.45), IDS (284.S7±51.l6 mWl), TSS (2.27±l.03 mWl), Electrical conductivity (315.58±S7.28 mWl), turbidity (0.73±O.42 NTIJ, total hardness (306.23±70.64 mWl), calcium (61.61±12.23 mWl),magnesium (36.03±13.47 mWl), bicarbonates (187.84±2S.87 mWl), chloride (31.41±10.SS mWl), sulphate (49.43±16.15 mWl), nitrate (19.21± 10.58mWl), sodium (28.92±9.95 mWl), and potassium (3.6S±1.l7mWl), Alkalinity (due to hydroxide and carbonate) and nitrites were found absent. All the anaIyses were found to be within the WHO permissible limits. This paper concludes that, waters of all the tube wells of Peshawar (under study) are safe for human consumption provided the supply lines and the storage tanks are prevented from being contaminated. A lowering trend in the pH of underground waters of Peshawar was seen, the reason to this was not found. The results presented in this paper also contradict the previous statement about the nitrate concentration in the tube well waters of Peshawar to have been decreasing.read more


Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Molybdenum and Iron in the Thiocyanate System

A sensitive and modified method for the separation and estimation of micro amounts of molybdenum(VI) in presence of macro amount of iron(UI) in the thiocyanate system baa been developed. The orange red complex Mo(VI)-SCN in the presence of HCI is quantitatively extractable to an organic phase containing tribeozylamine and chloroform whereas blood red complex Fe(I1I) - SCN remains in the aqueous phase. The Mo-SCN complex baa maximum absorption at 470 run while Fe-SCN complex absorbs at 460 nm. The stability of Mo-SCN complex stands for 72 hours whereas Fe-SCN complex life is for only few hours. The interference due to various ions (cations and anions) baa been also carried out.read more


A Semi-Empirical Study of (B3H3N3H3)Cr(CO)3

A semi-empirical molecular. orbital calculation at the PMJ level has been done on the borazine chromium carbonyl complex, (B3H3N3H) Cr{CO)3. The results of our calculation show that the B3N) ring atoms of borazine favour a nonplanar ring unlike the arene complex (h6-C6H6) Cr(CO)3 and (h6- C6Me6)Cr (CO3). The Cr atom is pseudo octahedral having the six coordinate positions occupied by three-CO groups and three - N atoms with the CO group located trans to the nitrogen atoms. The puckered borazine ring gave a Cr-N distance of 2.l4 A and a Cr - B distance of 2.30A Other data including the B-N distance, formal charge on B and N and the barrier to rotation will be presented and compared with experimental data taken on the hexaethylborazine chromium tricarbonyl complex.read more


Some Metal(II) Chelates of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with Thiazole Derived Schiff-Base Ligand: Their Synthesis, Characterization and Role of Anions (NO3-, SO42--C2O42- and CH3C02-) on Their Antibacterial Properties

A number of biologically: active nickel (ll),copper(ll) and zinc(1I) chelates with a novel thiazole derived sa1icylaldehyde having the same meta1 ion but different anions, e.g., nitrate. sulfate, oxalate and acetate. have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of their physical, spectra1 and analytical data. In order to evaluate the role of anions on their antibacterial properties, the ligand and its synthesized meta1 chelates with various anions have been screened against bacterial species Escherichia coli. Pseudomonas, aeruginosa and Slaphylococcus aureus. The title studies have proved the role of anions in enhancing the antibacterial properties.read more


Determination of Microamount of Carbon in Selected Samples of Iron, Steels, Ferro-Alloys and Metal Powder

The influence of non-meta1lic components such as nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon has significant effect on the microstructure and ultimately on the mechanical properties of iron steels and ferro-alloy products. For the quantitative estimation of carbon content, some selected samples of iron, low alloy steel, high alloy steel, stainless steel, ferro-alloys, meta1 powders and the standards of these materials have been ana1yzed for the measurement of carbon content in microamount by using high frequency (HF) energy combustion and infrared (IR) detection technique. The acuracy of the method was evaluated statistically and the result data were compared with the literature values.read more


Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Binuclear Complexes of Chiral Schiff Base 2,6-Bis (1S, 2R-2-Hydroxy-l-Methyl 2-¬Phenylethylimino )-4-Heptanone

Binuclear complexes of VO(IV), Cr(1I), Co(II), and Cu(lI) with the title ligand were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and infrared spectra. The metal ions occupy the ONONO coordination sites of the ligand while acetates and two H2O molecules lire associated with each complex to satisfy the coordination requirements of the metal ions. The binuclear complexcs have comparatively higher antibacterial activity as compared to their mononuclear analogs.read more


Two New Hydroquinone Derivatives from Two Sponge Species of the Aegean Sea

From two sponge species (Spongia and Ircinia) of the Aegean Sea two new octaprenylated hydroquinone, 1,4,44-trihydroxy-2-octaprenylbenzene (1) and 4-hydroxy-3­oclaprenylbenzoic acid (2) were isolated together with eleven known terpenoids. The structures of the compounds were decided by using 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. They were also tested against two gram-positive bacteria strains. Compound (I) exhibited weak activity against Pseudomonas aeuroginosa.read more


A Simple Method for Isothermal Titration Calorimetric Data Analysis

A simple method was introduced for isothermal titration ca1orimctric data analysis. This method was applied to the binding of monosaccharide methyl α-D-mannoopyranoside to concava1in A at pH 6.9 and temperature of 25°C. The dissociation binding constant (K) and the molar enthalpy of binding (AU) were 0.135 mM and -28.47 kJ/mol, respectively. These results were markedly consistent with the results obtained from previous method. read more


Measurements of Photochemical Oxidants at Sindh Industrial Trading Estate of Karachi, Pakistan

Continuous measurement of nitrogen oxides (NO and NOx) and ozone (03) were carried out by Air Pollution Monitoring Mobile Laboratory at a sampling lite located in the Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (SITE) of Karachi. The average concentration of NO was found to be between 7.1 to 69.9 ppb, No,. 17.2 to 83.5 ppb, and 0, from 7.5 to 19.1 ppb. Ambient concentration of NO, Nox. and O3 are strongly inter related and their dispersion condition are also discussed. The results obtained at SITE are compared with the data obtained at other industrial areas of Karachi and with the data generated at an uptown area of Karachi, which shows clear formation of ozone during the day time. It is evident that the formation of ozone is dependent upon the time lag in the photochemical process. read more


IR and lH-NMR Investigations for Molecular Interactions between Methyl Methacrylate and Methylcyanoacetate

The molecular interaction between. methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methylcyanoacetate (MCA) has been studied. The IR results show a lower electron density for vinyl as well as  for the carbonyl double bond of methyl methylcyanoacetate  increase in the solution. The 1H-NMR data also coinside with the results of IR investigation. These results lead to the conclusions that a cyclic structure of MMA-MCA complex is formed by the interaction of the oxygen of the carbonyl group and active hydrogen atom of MCA with methylene group of the vinyl double bond and oxygen of tile carbony1 group of the MMA respectively. This cyclic structure facilitate the abstraction of H a atom in MCA by MMA and formation of transition radical which after rearrangement can start the polymerization reaction. read more