HPLC Determination of Entecavir in Pure, Tablet Dosage Form and Spiked Plasma

Entecavir is an analogue with selective activity against hepatitis B virus. In this study, an HPLC method for the determination of entecavir was developed. Entecavir was eluted through C18 ODS Hypersil column of 150 × 4.6 mm id with 5 µm particle size using simple mobile phase of acetonitrile: 10 mM phosphate buffer (80:20) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 and eluate was detected at 218 nm. Etoposide was used as an internal standard. The accuracy of the developed method was 97-99% for both with-in-batch and between-batches studies and CV (%) of < 3. The new method is highly sensitive upto 0.0097 µg mL-1. The validation results and statistical data demonstrate that the method is more sensitive, reliable and reproducible and has an importance in quality assurance of entecavir analysis and in bioequivalence studies.read more

Muhammad Ashraf, Hafiz Muhammad Nauman Shabbir, Muhammad Munawar Hayat, Jameel Rahman, Samina Ejaz, Muhammad Iqbal and Faiz-ul-Hassan Nasim

Ear Study of Cotton Fabric Dyeing by Reactive Dyes in Various Water Hardness Systems

In the present work, effect of hardness on dyeing of cotton fabric using bi-functional reactive dyes has been investigated. Water hardness due to Ca, Mg & Fe with different anions has been considered. For hardness parameters anions types and concentration are varied during this work. For bi-functional reactive dye parameters, dye shades with variable concentration values have been considered. Effects of these parameters i.e. dye type, concentration, hardness type & its concentration are evaluated by variation in color value, rubbing and washing tests.read more

Faiza Saleem and Shahid Amin

Optical Band Gap and Radiation Chemical Formation of HCl in Polyvinyl Alcohol Films Containing Chloral Hydrate for Use in Radiation Dosimetry

Radiation sensitive indicator based on dyed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing acid – sensitive dye (bromo-chloro-phenol blue, BCPB) and chloral hydrate has been developed. These plastic film dosimeters undergo color change from blue (the alkaline form of bromo-chloro-phenol blue, BCPB) to yellow (the acidic form of bromo-chloro-phenol blue, BCPB), indicating acid formation. The concentration of formed acids in the films containing different concentrations of chloral hydrate was calculated at different doses. These films can be used as dosimeters for food dosimetry applications where the maximum of the useful dose ranges are between 1-10 kGy depending on chloral hydrate concentration in the film. The films have the advantage of negligible humidity effects on response in the range of relative humidity from 0 to 100% as good post irradiation stability when stored in the dark at room temperature. The energy band gap of the prepared films was calculated and the effect of gamma radiation on its value was determined. Direct and indirect transitions were illustrated from the absorption spectra.read more

Sayeda Eid, Wafaa Beshir and Seif Ebraheem

Removal of Basic Blue 3 from the Aqueous Solution with Ternary Polymer Nanocomposite: Swelling, Kinetics, Isotherms and Error Function

Ternary nanocomposite (Gum Arabic / PVA / Alginate) adsorbent was prepared by a cost effective method for dyes removal, because gum arabic and alginate are the cheapest materials. Gum arabic is a natural gum. Alginate that has long carboxylate functional group is a biosorbent. In this study, Gum arabic/PVA/Alginate was prepared that this absorbent has the high specific surface area. BET was measured as 12.93 m2/g. Swelling of adsorbent was determined at different pH. For the maximum swelling ratio was obtained at pH 6.887, adsorption experiments were studied by the batch method. Freundlich, BET and Langmuir isotherm methods were applied at different concentrations and constant temperature 25o C. Finally, the adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite was calculated as 200 mgg-1. The different adsorption kinetic models were studied at temperature from 25°C to 45°C and different concentrations. The thermodynamic parameters as ΔHo, ΔGo, and ΔSo were calculated.read more

Selcan Karakuş, Sedef Şişmanoğlu, Gizem Akdut, Öykü Ürk, 1Ezgi Tan, Tuba Şişmanoğlu and Ayben Kilislioğlu

Reactive Dye Removal by a Novel Biochar/ MgO Nanocomposite

This research was aimed to synthesize a cost effective charcoal based nano-sorbent and evaluate its adsorption efficiency for the removal of reactive dye blue 221 (RB-221) from synthetic textile waste water. Charcoal was prepared by thermal decomposition of rice straw and a charcoal/MgO nanocomposite was prepared through modified co-precipitation method. The prepared adsorbent was analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) imaging techniques for its morphology and characterization. XRD analysis showed the crystallite size ranging from 8 to 20 nm. The adsorption efficiency of the nanocomposite was tested through batch experiments. Effects of shaking speed, shaking time, adsorbent dose, pH, temperature and initial adsorbate concentration was studied and optimum conditions were recorded. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms of adsorption revealed favorable and feasible adsorption of dye on to the charcoal and MgO nanocomposite. Endothermic and spontaneous adsorption was observed through thermodynamic parameters. Data obtained from adsorption studies best fitted pseudo first order kinetic model. The regression factor for this model was calculated to be R2= 0.887. The results indicate feasible adsorption of RB-221 on nanocomposite of rice straw charcoal/MgO nanocomposite from aqueous solutions.read more

Amna Moazzam, Nadia Jamil, Farah Nadeem, Abdul Qadir, Naveed Ahsan and Mariam Zameer

Fe(II) and Co (II) Complexes of (4-(4-bromophenyl)-[2,2'-bipyridine]-6-carboxylic acid) Synthesis, Characterization and Electrochromic studies

In this study novel complexes of substituted bipyridine (4-(4-bromophenyl)-[2,2'-bipyridine]-6-carboxylic acid) with Fe+2 and Co+2 were synthesized and characterized by different physical, analytical and spectral techniques which includes 1H-NMR, MALDI-MS, FTIR, UV-VIS Spectrophotometry, CHN analysis and conductometry. Mole ratio method revealed that both complexes satisfied ML2 stoichiometry. Other characterization studies showed that substituted bipyridine acted as a tridentate ligand, with two pyridine N and one carboxylic O atom as binding sites per ligand molecule. The complexes were found octahedral, neutral and possessed fairly high molar absorptivities in visible region. Electrochromic studies revealed that Fe (II) complex had relatively good electrochromic properties with a reversible color change from blue to pale yellow. Co (II) complex, however, did not show significant electrochromic properties in the visible region.read more

Saba, Fatima Zehra Basha, Zahida Tariq Maqsood and Agha Arslan Wasim

Biological Activity and Phytochemical Composition of the Volatile Oils from Basilicum polystachyon

This paper extracted and determined the chemical components of the volatile oil in Basilicum polystachyon, and measured and evaluated the bioactivity of the volatile oil in Basilicum polystachyon. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were separated and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by using the 8 kinds of plant pathogenic fungi. The free radicals scavenging activity of its volatile oil for the IC50 were investigated by using Trolox as the comparison and cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethal bioassay. The results show that 64 constituents of oils isolated respectively from Basilicum polystachyon were identified. The appraised components take up 99.75% of the total peak area. The main composition of the volatile oil is sesquiterpenoids and monoterpene. The results exhibit that the volatile oil in Basilicum polystachyon has very strong bioactivity of antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity. These results provided the reference for further understanding the chemical components and its bioactivity of this aromatic plant as well as its further development.read more

Hong-Xin Cui, Yan Qiu, Wei Chen Ge, Fang-Rong Cheng and Ke Yuan

Synthesis of New Congo Red Derivative Dyes and their Application as Hardness Reduction in Hard Water

Azo dyes are exceptionally important in a variety of industries for diverse technical purposes. Synthesis of new Congo Red derivatives (6a-j) was achieved by diazotization of Congo Red at low temperature followed by coupling with a number of different coupling partners 5a-j in basic medium. The structures of newly synthesized dyes were confirmed using elemental and spectral data. The synthesized dyes were tested for their ion scavenging properties in hard water. Compounds 6b-d and 6h-i were found to be successful in decreasing the water hardness, making them valuable candidates for water treatment in boilers and cooling towers in the chemical industry.read more

Ghulam Shabir and Aamer Saeed

Endogenous Hormones Levels and Csexpansin 10 Gene Expression in the Fruit Set and Early Development of Cucumber

Fruit set and early development depends on endogenous hormone levels and gene expression related to fruit growth and development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). In this study, the growth and development of cucumber ovaries and young fruits, endogenous hormones levels, and Csexpansin 10 (CsEXP 10) gene expressions in pollinated fruits and unpollinated ovaries were studied from -2 to 6 days post anthesis (DPA). The results showed that the fruit diameter and length, single fruit weight, endogenous hormone levels, and CsEXP 10 gene expression levels were all higher in pollinated fruits than in unpollinated ovaries, and CsEXP 10 gene expression levels were positively correlated with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but negatively correlated with gibberellic acid (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA). This suggests that pollination may stimulate the fruit set and development by inducing increases in endogenous hormone levels and CsEXP 10 gene expression, and the CsEXP 10 gene may be downregulated by GA3 and ABA.read more

Yongdong Sun, Weirong Luo, Zhenxia Li and Xinzheng Li

Synthesis, Biological Activity and Computational Studies of Novel Azo-Compounds

In the present protocol, we report the synthesis and characterization of some novel azo-compounds starting from 4-methoxyanniline and 4-aminophenazone, which were diazotised at low temperature. 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminobenzoic acid, benzamide, 4-aminobenzoic acid, resorcinol, o-bromonitrobenzene and 2-nitroaniline were used as active aromatic coupling compounds for the second step. The synthesized compounds were investigated for their potential antibacterial activities by using disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Shigellasonnei, Streptococcus pyrogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains. They were also subjected to antioxidant activities by using DPPH method. Results revealed that the compounds of 4-methoxyaniline and 4-aminophenazone showed good antibacterial activity against all strains, where as some azo-compounds have moderate to good antioxidant activities. Furthermore, these compounds were studied by computational analysis.read more

Jamshaid Ashraf, Shahzad Murtaza, Ehsan Ullah Mughal and Amina Sadiq