An Ultrasonic Study on Acoustical and Excess Properties of Ternary Liquid Mixtures of 2-Bromoanisole + 1-Butanol + n-Hexane at Different Temperatures 303K, 308K and 313K and a Frequency 2MHz

The behaviour of liquid mixture of 2-Bromoanisole, 1-Butanol and n-Hexane as a function of temperature and composition has been investigated by measuring ultrasonic velocity in conjunction with density and viscosity at 303K, 308K and 318K for frequency 2 MHz using ultrasonic interferometer. With the help of the measured values ultrasonic velocity (u), viscosity (η) and density (ρ), the acoustical parameters like acoustic impedance, adiabatic compressibility, free length, free volume and internal pressure have been calculated. In order to know the molecular interaction between the components in the ternary liquid mixture, nature and strength of molecular interaction in the components of the ternary mixture, the actual values of acoustical parameters were computed in to their excess properties. Excess ultrasonic velocity (UE), excess acoustic impedance (ZE), excess intermolecular free length (LEf) excess adiabatic compressibility (βE), excess free volume (VfE) and excess internal pressure have been calculated for the ternary liquid mixtures containing 2-bromoanisole, 1-butanol in n-hexane at various temperatures 303K, 308K and 313K at fixed frequency 2MHz, for different concentrations ranges from 0.001M to 0.01M and fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. The computed excess values of excess ultrasonic velocity, excess acoustic impedance, excess intermolecular free length, excess adiabatic compressibility, excess free volume and excess internal pressure were plotted against the concentration of ternary liquid of the mixture at different temperatures 303K, 308K and 313K at a fixed frequency of 2MHz. A good agreement has been found between the experimental and calculated values of the ultrasonic velocity. The strength and the nature of the interactions between like and unlike molecules have been discussed in terms of dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, and induced dipole-induced dipole interaction through hydrogen bonding. The present study aims to evolve the impact of ultrasonic sound over the molecular interaction of ternary liquid mixture consisting of 2-bromoanisole, 1-butanol in n-hexane mixture at different temperature 303K, 308K and more

J. Edward Jeyakumar, S.Chidambara Vinayagam, J. Senthil Murugan and P.S.Syed Ibrahim

Insights into the Photosensitive Activity of Monolayer HNb3O8 Nanosheets Under Visible Light Irradiation

Monolayer HNb3O8 nanosheets, as a platform, were prepared for investigating the mechanism of photosensitized degradation of RhB. We found that RhB molecules were capable to absorb on HNb3O8 nanosheets via a strong interaction between the –N(Et)2 group in RhB molecules and surface Lewis acid sites on HNb3O8 nanosheets, contribution to an easier oxidation of RhB molecules. Thanks to the suitable conduction band of HNb3O8 nanosheets, electrons transferred from excited RhB to HNb3O8 nanosheets effectively and reduced the dissolved O2 in the reaction solution into O2-• immediately, resulting in the efficient photosensitized degradation of more

Jinhua Xiong, Jiahang Chen, Xueqing Shao, Xiuzhen Liu, Lingyan Fu

Understanding the Basics of Electron Transfer and Cyclic Voltammetry of Potassium Ferricyanide - An Outer Sphere Heterogeneous Electrode Reaction

Understanding and controlling the processes occurring at electrode/electrolyte interface are very important in optimizing energy conversion devices. Cyclic voltammetry is a very sophisticated and accurate electroanalytical method enables us to explore the mechanism of such electrode reactions. In this work, electrochemical experiments using cyclic voltammetry were performed in aqueous KCl solution containing potassium ferricyanide, K3[Fe(CN)6] at a glassy carbon disc working electrode and the mechanism of the reactions is highlighted. The CV measurements shows that the ferricyanide [Fe(CN)6]3− reduction to ferrocyanide [Fe(CN)6]4− and the reverse oxidation process follows an outer sphere electrode reaction mechanism. Voltammetry analysis further indicates that the reaction is reversible and diffusion controlled one electron transfer electrochemical process. The peak currents due to [Fe(CN)6]4− oxidation and the peak current due to [Fe(CN)6]3− reduction increase with increase of concentration and scan rate increase. The diffusion co-efficient was determined by applying Randles-Sevcik equation. The report could be helpful for university students to understand the basics of electron transfer in redox processes and cyclic more

Sayyar Muhammad, Ummul Banin Zahra, Aneela Ahmad, Luqman Ali Shah and Akhtar Muhammad

Experimental and Theoretical Studies of 2- (naphthalen-1-yl (piperidin-1-yl) methyl)phenol Compound

The 2- (naphthalen-1-yl (piperidin-1-yl) methyl) phenol compound is an alkylaminophenol compound and has been experimentally synthesized by the Petasis reaction. In this study Structural analysis was carried out by FT-IR, NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy. The high antioxidant value of the compound showed that it could be a potential biologically active drug. Theoretical data support all experimental analysis of the new compound. Comparisons were made by double method. For this purpose, DFT (B3LYP) and HF methods have been used with 6-311G ++ (d, p) set. Also, the compound's electronic and structural properties (bond lengths, bond angles and dihedral angles), the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies, electrostatic potential (MEP), vibrational frequencies, Mulliken atomic charges, excitation energies, and oscillator strengths were calculated. As a result; the theoretical and experimental values were found to be more

Yeliz Ulaş

Synthesis and Characterization of WO3·0.33H2O/Ag2MoO4 Composites as a Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalyst for Rhodamine B and Levofloxacin Degradation

Visible-light-driven WO3·0.33H2O/Ag2MoO4 composites have been prepared by using an in-situ growth of Ag2MoO4 nanoparticles on the surfaces of WO3·0.33H2O. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were studied by degradation of rhodamine B and levofloxacin dilute solution. The synergistic photocatalytic mechanism was also analyzed. Experimental results reveal that the as-developed hybrids have higher photocatalytic activity than pure samples. When the theoretical molar ratio of WO3·0.33H2O to Na2MoO4·2H2O is 1:0.15, the as-developed hybrids have the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency of 99.0% for rhodamine B in 45 min and 40.9% for levofloxacin in 120 min. Furthermore, there are chemical bonds between WO3·0.33H2O and Ag2MoO4. In addition, the super oxide radicals play the leading role during the photocatalytic degradation process of the samples. This work will provide reference for treatment of organic dyes and antibiotics pollution in water with using solar more

Yun-Xuan Fu, Yan Li, Tian-Long Chang, Xu-Tao Liu, Xiang-Feng Wu, Jia-Rui Zhang Hui Wang and Xiao-Ye Ma

Ultrasonic-Assisted Synthesis of Zinc Borates: Effect of Boron Sources

Sonochemistry meaning ultrasound-assisted chemistry plays an important role in the synthesis of inorganic compounds. Among these inorganic compounds, zinc borates are used for the flame-retarding agent. In this study using zinc chloride (ZnCl2), boric acid (H3BO3), Na2B4O7·10H2O, Na2B4O7·5H2O and NaOH as raw materials, a zinc borate compound in the formulae of Zn3B6O12·3.5H2O was obtained using an ultrasonic probe. Crystal structures of samples were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The symmetric and asymmetric stretching between boron and oxygen atoms were searched by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopies. The effects of boron sources on sample morphology were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From the results, it was seen that Zn3B6O12·3.5H2O can easily be produced from these raw materials with the synthesis parameters of 80-90°C and 40-55 min. From the SEM results, it was seen that the minimum particle size obtained was 172 nm. Reaction efficiencies were calculated between 79.6 and 94.0 ± 0.5%. Thermal feature of the obtained pure phase, investigated with the thermogravimetric analyses. The dehydration of the synthesized Zn3B6O12·3.5H2O was seen between 262 and 413°C with a total mass loss of more

Fatma Tugce Senberber Dumanli, Azmi Seyhun Kipcak, Duygu Sena Vardar and Nurcan Tugrul

Gas-Liquid-Solid Three-Phase Catalyzed S-Methylation of Thiophenol with Dimethyl Carbonate in a Fixed-Bed Reactor: Catalytic Performances of Activated Alumina Supported Alkali Metal Carbonate Catalysts

The catalytic performances of activated alumina and its supported alkali metal carbonate catalysts for the reaction of thiophenol with dimethyl carbonate to prepare thioanisole (PhSMe) were investigated on a fixed bed reactor under the condition of atmospheric pressure. The properties of activated alumina and its loading alkali metal carbonate catalysts were characterized via IR, BET and XRD. The effect of loading amount of alkali metal carbonate, calcination temperature, reaction temperature and liquid volume hourly space velocity (LVHSV) of reactants on the catalytic performances of the catalysts was also examined. The yield of PhSMe was 93.5% when activated alumina was used as catalyst alone at 120 °C, however, the catalytic activities of the catalysts after loading 5-15 wt% K2CO3 were greatly improved, and the yield of PhSMe was 99-100%. Compared to activated alumina, the catalytic performances of catalysts after loading different alkali metal carbonate are greatly improved. The improvement of catalytic performance can be attributed to that carbonate may occupy the Lewis acid sites of the activated alumina surface, making it easier for the catalyst to activate thiophenol, thus giving benzenethiolate a stronger nucleophilic attack ability. The results of FTIR analysis show that the characteristic peaks of carbonate are blue shifted, also indicating that carbonate reacted with the surface of activated alumina. The Lewis basic site on the surface of the activated alumina is believed to play a crucial more


Molecular Imprinted Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite for Optical Sensing of Nicotine in Human Blood Plasma

Among all psychotropic alkaloids, nicotine is more addictive, carcinogenic and capable of causing many health problems. This work is based on the development of highly robust, cheap, reliable, selective and sensitive nicotine imprinted graphene oxide nanocomposite (ImpGO nanocomposite) based optical sensor for determination of nicotine in human plasma. The ImpGO nanocomposite has been thoroughly characterized using different techniques i.e. FT-IR, SEM, TEM, Raman, etc. These characterizations revealed that ImpGO nanocomposite is comprised of single layer of graphene oxide successfully modified with imprinted polymer. The synthesized material was utilized to selectively determine nicotine using UV-vis spectrophotometer in BR buffer of 0.1 M at pH 3 and diluted human plasma. The effect of parameters such as buffer concentration, pH, amount of nanocomposite, etc on determination of nicotine using ImpGO nanocomposite were studied thoroughly. Thus, a sensitive optical method was developed for determination of nicotine in human plasma with linear range of 22-370 pM along with LOD and LOQ of 7 pM and 22 pM, respectively. The selectivity of sensor was evaluated using homologues of nicotine such as nicotine amide, caffeine and cotinine. The results obtained from biological samples showed that developed optical sensor is efficient in complex matrices of real more

Sehrish Qazi, Huma Shaikh, Ayaz Ali Memon, and Shahabuddin Memon

Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic-Diode Array Detection Method for Quantification of Rhein in Microsample of Rabbit Plasma and Application to the Pharmacokinetic Study

The present work describes a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) assay with diode array detection (DAD) for the determination of rhein, an active metabolite of diacerein, in spiked rabbit plasma. The plasma samples were subjected to one-step liquid-liquid extraction using a protein precipitating agent. The separation of rhein was achieved on an RP C18 hypersil-ODS column (250×4.6mm, 5μm). The mobile phase consisted of a binary mixture of methanol and water (15: 85 v/v, pH 4.7) run under the isocratic system at a flow rate of 1 ml.min-1, the wavelength of DAD was set at 210 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and stability according to the International Council for Harmonization (ICH guidelines). The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.015-5 µg. ml-1 for rhein with the coefficient of regression (r2) of value 0.9980. Extraction recovery for rhein from rabbit plasma was in the range of 95.0% to 98.60% to different sample concentrations. The retention time of rhein was observed at 5.34 min. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 5 and 15 respectively. The assay method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of diacerein plain aqueous dispersion in albino more

Asadullah Madni, Muhammad Imran Khan, Mubashar Rehman, Nayab Tahir, Nadia Rai, Farzana Parveen, Muhammad Danish Saeed, Muhammad Abdur Rahim, Hassan Shah

Oral Administration of Rauwolfia Serpentina Plant Extract Mitigated Immobilization Stress-Induced Biochemical and Behavioral Deficits in Rats

Rauwolfia Serpentina is a medicinal herb used for hypertension and psychotic disorders. In this study neuroprotective effects of Rauwolfia serpentina plant extract following the exposure to acute immobilization (2h) stress in rats were investigated. The extract of the plant administered orally at non-sedative dose 30mg/kg before immobilization (2h) to observe stress induced behavioral deficits. Neuroprotective efficacy of extract was assessed in terms of alteration in activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). We also monitored leptin, corticosterone and glucose levels in plasma to obtain an imminent role of Rauwolfia serpentina. Animals were orally administered with Rauwolfia serpentina (30mg/kg) while controls receive saline (1ml/kg). Each group was subdivided into stressed and unstressed groups. Behavioral deficits were monitored in the open field and light dark activity box. Animals were decapitated; plasma samples were collected for CAT, SOD, corticosterone, leptin and glucose estimation. Orally administered Rauwolfia serpentina attenuates stress induced behavioral deficits and rise antioxidant enzymes levels. Plant extract also prevents the stress-induced increase in corticosterone but glucose levels do not manifest any significant change. Immobilization stress (2h) induced decrease of plasma leptin levels were reversed by Rauwolfia serpentina. Therefore, the present study suggests that Rauwolfia serpentina has potentiality to antagonize undesirable effects of immobilization stress (2h) by reducing stress perception and inhibitory effects of stress on the activity of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and animal behaviors. Despite an apparent role of Rauwolfia serpentina the mechanism of action at molecular level causing the acute anxiolytic effects of oral administration of plant extract remains to be more

Erum Shireen, Wafa Binte Ali, Maria Masroor, Shamim A. Qureshi, Sehrish Kiran, Nida Memon, Nashran Junaid, Muhammad Mansoor Hai and Darakhshan J. Haleem