Effect of the Synthesis Method, Complexing Agent and Solvent on the Physicochemical Properties of LaNiO3 Nanopowders

LaNiO3 nanopowders are synthesized by sol–gel and sol-gel combustion methods using citric acid, ascorbic acid and sucrose as chelating agents, and ethanol and water as solvents. The precursor thermal decomposition towards the final solid was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric techniques which were also used to provide the adequate temperature of calcination (800°C) for achievement of the final perovskite. After calcination, the nanocomposites were characterized by powder size distribution, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.read more

Djani Faiçal, Arturo Martínez-Arias and Muazzez Gürgan

The Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide by Phosphate Ore Slurry

In the present study, the reaction process of H2S removal by calcined phosphate ore slurry was investigated by XRD and kinetics analysis. It was found that the absorption amount of H2S was 69.47 mg in 200 min, and 70.09% of the absorption caused by calcium oxide, indicating that the reaction was mainly the action of calcium oxide. Furthermore, it is showed that Fe2O3 played an important role in the removal process. Fe(III) can be dissolved form the phosphate ore, and became an efficiently catalytic oxidant. H2S can be catalytically oxidized by Fe(III)/Fe(II) system. It was indicated that about 30% removal of H2S was caused by Fe(III). By the model analysis, the leaching reaction was belonged to the diffusion chemical reaction mixing control model. And the activation energy of the reaction was 17.224 kJ/mol obtained from the Arrhenius equation, which further proved that the reaction belonged to the mixed control model.read more

Dongdong Zhang, Chenghao Sha, Tianyan Feng, Bo Tan, Ping Ning

Effect of Calcination Temperature on the Photocatalytic H2 Evolution of Bronze Phase Monoclinic TiO2(B) Nanosheets

In this work, we have successfully fabricated bronze phase monoclinic TiO2 (B) nanosheets from TiCl3 under hydrothermal conditions. The fabricated samples were calcined at different annealing temperature (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 oC) to select optimum temperature under UV light irradiation for the efficient photocatalytic water splitting. Different techniques were used for the characterization of fabricated photocatalysts. Interestingly, the sample calcined at 400 oC delivered optimum H2 evolution from water which is attributed to the relatively high surface area and effective charge separation. The characteristic anisotropic nature of TiO2(B) plays very crucial role in charge separation which is evident from photoluminescence spectra, steady-state surface photovoltage spectra, and produced hydroxyl radical amount. It has been concluded that optimum annealing temperature generally introduces charge trapping centres which help in the separation of excite charges for improved photocatalytic activity. However, high temperature results in particles aggregation to reduce the surface area and hence retards the photocatalytic efficiency. This work will direct future research to fabricate materials at optimized temperature for the improved photocatalytic activities.read more

Min Xu, Muhammad Shakeel Khan, Perveen Fazil, Muhammad Ateeq

Interrelation of Zinc and Cadmium in the Biological Samples of Indoor and Outdoor Workers of Five Zonal Areas of Coal Mining Field

Coal mining is still one of the most tough, nasty, and dangerous jobs in the world, with more fatalities than any other. The present study assessed zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in scalp hair and blood samples of 270 coal mining field employees, working in Hyderabad, Pakistan, aged 18-55 years. The scalp hair and blood samples of age-matched healthy volunteers (n= 70) were examined for chosen elements for a comparison analysis. For understudied metals, environmental samples (soil, water, and coal) from coal mining fields and nonindustrial areas were investigated. The Zn levels in the scalp hair and blood samples of coal mining male exposed workers were found to be lower, in the range of {88.9- 118; 100- 133 µg/g} and {3.32- 4.41; 3.33- 6.04 mg/l)}, respectively than the referent subjects {224-237; 209-221} µg/g and {6.82-7.82; 6.60-7.42 mg/l}, respectively. Whilst, the Cd concentrations in the scalp hair and blood samples different five zones of indoor and out-door coal mining field exposed workers were found to be higher, in the range of {10.1- 16.9; 9.65- 16.9} and {8.89- 12.65; 8.96- 11.7} µg/l, respectively than the biological samples of two age groups (18-35) and (36- 55) years referent subjects {3.45-4.45; 4.02-5.32} µg/g and {3.25-3.72; 3.82-4.10 µg/l}, respectively. Serum, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood count, and creatinine clearance counts were significantly lower in mining filed workers than in referents (p0.001), whereas erythrocyte sedimentation rate and N-acetyl- beta-glucosaminidase levels were significantly higher in workers than in referents (p0.001).The Zn concentration in water and soil samples of mining field were found to be within the WHO recommended values, whilst Zn concentration in coal samples of mining field was in between 15.5- 20.6 µg/g. Whilst, Cd levels in water and soil samples of mining field were found above the WHO recommended values, whilst Cd content in coal samples of mining field was in between 0.52- 0.75 µg/g. The findings indicate that immediate action is required to improve ventilation and hygiene measures within factories, mines, and other work environments.read more

Hassan Imran Afridi, Qutubuddin Solangi, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Farah Naz Talpur, Jameel Ahmed Baig, Ghulam Qadir Chanihoon, Almas Rahoojo

MOFs Modified Paper-Based Materials: Preparation and Application to EtOH Fluorescence Response

Based on the solvothermal method, two new MOFs with 3-(1-Oxo-1H-2,3-dihydroisoindol-2-yl)benzoic acid as the organic ligand, Zn-HBPA and Zn-bpy-HBPA were synthesized. The structure of MOFs was characterized by 1H-NMR, XRD, FT-IR and SEM. A series of modified cellulose paper-based functional materials with different spraying times were prepared by flame spraying method, and the fluorescence property of MOFs modified cellulose paper to EtOH small molecules was investigated by fluorescence spectrometer. The results of FT-IR and SEM showed that the flame spraying method could effectively improve the retention rate of MOFs on cellulose paper materials. The PL characterization results displayed that Zn-HBPA@PFP exhibited a decrease in fluorescence after UV irradiation, while Zn-bpy-HBPA@PFP demenstrated an increase in fluorescence at λ=338 nm. The above results indicated that Zn-bpy-HBPA@PFP had an excellent response ability to EtOH small molecules, and when Cycle=7 times, Zn-bpy-HBPA@PFP had the best fluorescence enhancement effect.read more

Qiang Yang, Meiyun Zhang, Wei Gong, Xiaowei Cui, Chunsheng Zhou

Development and Validation of Analytical Method for the Determination of Cefovecin Sodium in African lions (Panthera leo) Plasma by HPLC: FDA Bioanalytical Assay Guidance

The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of cefovecin sodium in small volume of lion’s plasma. Analytical separation was obtained in less than 5 minutes (4.29-4.42 min) using a C-18 column with UV detection at λmax 254nm. The extraction of cefovecin sodium was carried out in methanol and acetonitrile. The mobile phase was composed of water: acetonitrile: methanol in a ratio of 60:20:20 at pH 3.1. The method was validated according to FDA Bioanalytical assay guidance. The limit of detection of cefovecin sodium was 0.05 ug/ml, and the limit of quantification was 0.1ug/ml. The range of linearity consisted of 5 points with 3 runs for each point that result in excellent linearity with R2 = 0.9998. The recoveries were 98-99.25 ± %RSD (NMT 2%). The intra-day and inter-day precision (%CV) of this method was 2.3-10.26% ± SD and 2.44-7.22% ± SD respectively. A straightforward, easy and successful HPLC method was developed that determined and quantified cefovecin sodium concentrations in African Lion's plasma that can be used in the future work in a pharmacokinetic study of cefovecin sodium.read more

Sultan M. Alshahrani and John Mark Christensen

Antinociceptive Activity of Syzygium Aromaticum Linn. Flower Buds (Clove) Extract and its Fractions

Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae) flower buds (clove) are traditionally known to possess antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, antiviral and other activities, including the antinociceptive action. Scientific evidence also suggests the antileishmanial, antiherpetic and anti-HIV activities of the buds. This paper reports the antinociceptive activity of S. aromaticum flower buds, reinforcing its use in decreasing the pain. The present study was designed to confirm the analgesic activity of S. aromaticum extract and seven of its fractions to reveal the common belief in its painkilling effects. We chose two thermal nociception assays (i) hot–plate test (ii) and tail-flick method as our experimental techniques. Both of these methods are well established to screen anti-nociceptive activities in new molecules. The standard drug indomethacin (5 mg/kg) given by intra-peritoneal route was used in the study for comparison. The study has shown that the methanolic extract (SA-EXT) and its active fractions possess anti-nociceptive activity (p<0.05) in the models of nociception used.read more

Sara, Sabira Begum, Saima Mahmood Malhi, Shabana U. Simjee, Bina. S. Siddiqui

Synthesis of 2,5-diphenyl-3,4-di(phenylethenyl)cyclopentadienone, -pyrrole and -thiophene

2,5-Diphenyl-3,4-di(phenylethenyl)cyclopentadienone (2), -pyrrole (3), and -thiophene (4) have been synthesized by bi-steps strategy. Step one involves the synthesis of cinnamil (1) by the condensation of 2,3-butanedione with benzaldehyde in the presence of Pyrrolidine as a catalyst. Step two involves the synthesis of 2,5-diphenyl-3,4-di(phenylethenyl)cyclopentadienone (2), -pyrrole (3), and -thiophene (4) by the condensation of cinnamil (1) with dibenzyl ketone, dibenzylamine, and dibenzyl sulfide, respectively in the presence of sodium hydride (base) and methylene chloride (solvent) while stirring. 1HNMR, LC-MS, IR, UV-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to confirm these products (2-4). Our method facilitated the proficient installation of four various groups on the cyclopentadienone (2), pyrrole (3), and thiophene (4) rings in two steps with an extended conjugated framework.read more

Syeda Shaista Gillani, Munawar Ali Munawar, Hafiz Adnan Ahmad, Rabia Babar, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Jamil Anwar Chaudhary

One Pot Syntheses and Biological Screening of New Vanillic Acid Esters

High yielding syntheses of new esters (1a-1l) have been developed by way of facile one-pot reaction of vanillic acid (1) with a variety of 2-bromoacetophenone derivatives. Their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic data. Vanillic acid and its newly synthesized esters have been screened for antioxidant activity along with inhibition studies against the enzymes lipoxygenase and urease, respectively. The compound 1c exhibited potent antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 44.5±0.72 μ M, while 1e showed significant inhibitory potential against lipoxygenase with an IC50 value of 11.4±0.22 μM. On the other hand, 1a, 1d, 1e, 1f and 1k revealed promising inhibitory activity against urease with IC50 values being 23.4±0.22, 22.2±0.42, 29.8±0.06, 24.6± 0.17 and 26.7±0.13μM, respectively.read more

Muhammad Shaiq. Ali, Jawad Ullah, Mehreen Lateef, Seerat Iqbal and Sadia Zikr-Ur-Rehman

Fabrication of Silica-Tagged Magnetic Nanocatalyst for the Rhodamine-B Dye Degradation from Real Environmental Samples

This study describes the simple and facile fabrication of silica-tagged magnetic nanostructures (Si@MNs) applied as a nanocatalyst to degrade Rhodamine-B (Rh-B) Dye from the real water samples. Fabricated material has been characterized by using different modern analytical techniques such FT-IR, SEM, XRD, ZS, ZP. According to a morphological study, the fabricated material contains a hexagonal, monoclinic shape and 68 nm in size after successful fabrication and characterization. The catalytic material has been used to degrade the Rh-B Dye. Various parameters have been optimized, such as the effect of reducing agent (NaBH4), impact of dye volume, and influence of catalyst dose to achieve the highest percentage of degradation. At optimal conditions, we get a good percentage of degradation up to 85% having good reproducibility. Fabricated catalyst has been successfully applied for actual water samples.read more

Abdul Rauf Shaikh, Ghulam Qadir Shar and Aamna Balouch