Zinc-Aluminum Alloy Deposition on Mild Steel

Zinc-aluminum alloys was electrodeposited on mild steel from non-cyanide chloride bath at current density 3-3.5 A/dm2, plating voltage ~ 1.25 V, temperature 18-20oC, for fifteen minutes. The effects of aluminum chloride on the rest potentials of golden, colorless and non-chromated zinc-aluminum alloys deposits were observed. It was found that rest potentials was slightly increased with the increase concentration of aluminum chloride, only in case of golden chromating. The rest potential of colorless chromated zinc-aluminum deposited on mild steel have no correlation with aluminum chloride concentration. The abrasion resistance of colorless chromated zinc-aluminum mild steel plates was better than golden chromating.read more


Investigation of Trace Metals in Vegetables Grown with Industrial Effluents

Fruits and vegetables are the major sources of minerals vitamins, carbohydrates, protein and fiber. Controlled conditions must be provided during harvesting of vegetable and fruit. The reason behind this study was an observation, that untreated industrials water was used for the harvesting of vegetables of vegetables near Korangi Industrial (KIA). Spinach sponge gourd and tomatoes samples were investigated for heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Zn. Pb was found to be maximum among all metals investigated in vegetables and tomatoes samples as 242.5, 46.3, 64.8 mg/kg for spinach gourd and tomatoes respectively. Hg was found to be minimum amount among all metals investigated as 0.18, 0.95 and 0.05 mg/kg for spinach, sponge gourd and tomatoes respectively. A distinct variation in concentrations for all metals was observed for the three vegetables. Metals accumulation in soil and vegetables was also studied. Which was found to be maximum for Pb and minimum for Hg.  read more


Measurement of Major Ambient Air Pollutants at Urban Background Site of Karachi

A study in air pollution was carried out in an urban background site of Karachi city to generate base line data for major gaseous pollutants; SO2 CO O3 NO and NOx in the ambient air along with the meteorological parameter. The data was collected in the year 2000. The collected data was analyzed for hourly average and the 24h average and TWA values. Monthly average concentration of SO2, CO, O3, NO and NOx during the year was determined to be in range of 0.4-5.6ppb, 0.2-0.8ppm, 7.2-24.0ppb, 1.5-28.6 ppb and 5.7-38.9ppb, respectively. The results suggest that all the air pollutants at this particular sampling site were mainly caused due to the emission from motor vehicles, which were coming from main super Highway.  read more


Determination of Trace Metals in the Vegetables Procured from Local Markets of Karachi City by Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometry

A study was carried out to determine the accumulation of heavy metals in the vegetables by Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometry. Eighteen varieties of vegetables (belonging to nine different families), were produced from federal B area, Landi and Korangi markets in Karachi city. The metals investigated were Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Cr. The level of Fe was found to be highest, whereas the level of Cr was lowest. The maximum concentration of Fe, Mn, Zn Cu and Cr were found to be 65.63, 42.40, 31.50, 2.51 and 1.08 mg/g in spinach. ginger, potato, mustard and spinach, respectively. The overall contents of these trace metals in the vegetables investigated were found to be within the permissible limits recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board, USA. The results show that the accumulation of trace metals in these vegetables is of nutritional interestread more


Chemical Constituents of Seed Oils/Metals of Pakistani Umbelliferae Spices as Potential Industrial Raw Material

Carum carvi, Anethum graveolens and petroselinum crispum cultivated in Pakistan  contained 9.12, 15.3% and 12.9% fixed oils respectively and were evaluated for their fatty acid and cake composition. It has been found by GC and degradative oxidation techniques that the seed oils contain high percentages (38.2%, 48.70%,and 83.1%) respectively of petrose linic acid. Other components fatty acids consisted of oleic, linoleic and palmetic acids with minor amounts of other saturated fatty acids. The seed cakes contained 19.25%, 15.68% & 25.0 protein, 11.83%, 14.8% & 11.02% fibre, 8.24%, 9.82% &8.19%, 8.39% &  12.39% moisture and 43.37%, 36.2% & 62% carbohydrates respectively of Carum carvi, Anethum graveolens and petroselinum crispum.read more


Effects of Temperature and Time on the Dyeing and Spectroscopic Properties of Direct Blue Dye

  Direct blue dye was prepared and applied to cellulose fiber at different temperatures and time. It was found that there is a marked effect on the fastness properties of dye with increase in temperature and time period of deying. The dye show a good corelationship between data obtained during this investigation.read more


Effect of Heavy Metals on the Growth and Development of silybum marinum, in Various Polluted Areas of Peshawar, Pakistan

The effects of heavy metals on the growth, development and accumulation of active constituents of silybum marinum were studied at three different areas, situated at a distance of 3 and 4 km from the main polluted area. The concentration of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe was studied in soil as well as in the plants collected. The plant parts including roots, stems, leaves, seeds, oil and silymarin extracted from the seed were evaluated. Oil obtained from the seed was not contaminated with heavy metals. It was observed that heavy metals in soil and air pollution reduced the contents of cellular and a cellular constituents of silybum marinum. This showed that silybum marinum is suitable for the control of environmental pollutants, how ever, for pharmaceutical utilization; bit should be collected from areas not contained with heavy metals.read more


Physiochemical Study of Drinking Water from Dir Districts

This paper presents a comprehensive picture of the quantity of water of 51 different localities of upper. Dir and lower Dir districts, NWFP, Pakistan. Samples of springs , wells, streams and rivers water were collected and investigated for both physical and chemical parameter like pH, conductance, total solids, total dissolved solids, total hardness, total alkalinity, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, iodide , fluoride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc, iron and copper for quality assessments. The levels of these parameters were compared with the permissible levels recommended by international agencies. Most of the parameters were observed to be within the permissible limits but some have exceeded. The water of springs at Dir high school No.1 and at road side near Muhansharif were found non-potable because of high level of total solids than that recommended by world Health Organization (WHO). The total hardness of water of well on road side at village Rani of springs at road side near Muhansharif, of spring at front of high school No. 1 at Dir and of well at khal bazaar was high than that permitted by American Public Health Associate APHA). The level of sulphate of Nehagdara stream at Wari bridge and of spring at Muhansharif and the level of calcium of water of well at khal bazaar exceed the limits recommended by WHO. All the water samples were deficient in zinc, fluoride and iodide. The importance and implications of the levels of all the parameters investigated have been elabored.read more


First Order Derivate Spectrophotometric Determination of Orphenadrine Citrate in Pure and Pharmaceutical Preparation

An improved first order derivative spectrophotometric method for the determination of orphenadrine citrate in pure and pharmaceutical preparation was developed. Orphenadrine citrate reacts with 1- amino naphthalene and sodium nitrate. After heating for 180s at 70oC to give a yellow having maximum absorbance at 476.3nm. The reaction is selective for orphenadrine citrate with 4.0mg-23.0 mg/ml as visual limits of quantitation. The color reaction obeys beer’s Law from 4.0mg-230mg/ml of orphenadrine step. Mean recoveries were found to be greater than 99.5 in the method for orphenadrine citrate in its synthesis mixtures. The quantitative assessment of tolerable amount of other drugs was also studied. Doubly distilled water or analytical grade ethyl alcohol was used as a solvent throughout the study.    read more


Investigation of Metal Contents in Some Medicinally Important Plants Using Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy

A large number of indigenous plants used as foods and medicines, around the world. Only few of these plants have been analyzed for their metal contents whereas several remain analyzed. Present study has been undertaken to investigate micronutrient and macronutrient metals among some hypoglycemic and non-hypoglycemic plants using atomic adsorption spectroscopy. Chromium present at ppb level, was studied by graphite furnace atomic adsorption spectroscopy equipped with hollow cathode lamp and zeeman background correction. The selected herbs resulted 0.132-1.8475mg/g Fe, 0.00430.0227mg/g Cr, 0.0278-0.1108mg/g Zn, 0.0102-0.345 mg/g Cu and 0.0095-0.6123mg/g Mn as micro-nutrients. however these metals are present in significant but under the safe and adequate limits. The water extract of these samples have rather low quantities.read more