Turbidity Removal by Electrooxidation from Pistachio Processing Wastewater Using Ti/Pt Anodes

Turbidity is the presence of suspended substances in water and is a pollution parameter for water. In this study, the removal of turbidity from pistachio processing wastewater by the electrooxidation process was investigated. Ti/Pt was used as the anode material and stainless steel was used as the cathode material. Stirring speed, supporting electrolyte type, and supporting electrolyte type concentration, initial pH value, and current density were investigated as working parameters. The mixing speed was investigated at 0, 200, 400, and 600 rpm. NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, and NaNO3 were used as supporting electrolyte types. 0, 0.250, 0.500, 0.625, 0.750, and 1.000 M of NaCl concentrations were tested. For pH experiments, 3, 4, 5.3 (natural pH), 7, 9, and 11 values were selected, and studies were carried out at current densities of 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 mA/cm². The highest removal rate was found as 66.66% at 400 rpm at mixing speed. The optimum conditions were selected as 0.625 M NaCl electrolyte concentration, 5 mA/cm2 current density, wastewater natural pH value (5.3) and turbidity removal was 92.43%, while the energy consumption was 193.5 kWh/m3. As the current density increases, the removal efficiency also increases, but considering the operating cost, this value was chosen as 5 mA/cm2. In the results, it was seen that the most effective supporting electrolyte type in the removal of turbidity by electrooxidation was NaCl, the most suitable ambient conditions were the natural pH value of the wastewater, and the electrooxidation was quite efficient.read more

Sermin Günaslan, Baybars Ali FİL and Alper Erdem Yılmaz

Demonstration of Efficient Separation, Surface Investigation and Thermodynamics Study of Sodium4-[(4-dimethylamino) phenyldiazenyl) Benzene Sulphonate Dye from Aqueous Solution onto Acid Activated Modified Purple Knight

The organic dye pollution has become increasingly serious in recent years and removal of organic dyes from the water samples has received intense attention. In present work the acid modified purple knight (Alternanthera dentata) leaves powder (MALP) is used as an adsorbent in order to remove sodium 4-[(4-dimethylaamino) phenyldiazenyl) benzene sulphonate (methyl orange dye) from an aqueous solution. The absence of stretching vibrations (1008cm-1 , 1400cm-1,1600cm-1 and 3184cm-1) of characteristic functional groups of modified purple knight plant in FTIR-analysis, as well as a significant decrease in the lambda max value from 600 to 420 in the electronic study, indicate that the texture of the purple knight (Alternanthera dentata) leaf is changed. The influences of pH and contact time on adsorption is also investigated at the actual experimental conditions as pH range of 2-4.5, a methyl orange concentration of 0.1M, and contact time of 5-60 minutes at 26 oC. Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models accurately described the kinetics experimental data for various solutions. The kinetic results indicate that adsorption process occurs in two or more steps. The adsorption models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller(BET)and Dubinin –Radusshkevich (D-R) are used to explain adsorption process at different temperatures ranging from 26 to 60 oC . In comparison to others adsorption models, equilibrium data at 26oC provide clear information about the regression coefficient, adsorption capacity, (RL= 0 to 1) and Freundlich constant (1/n <1). These values indicate Langmuir, and Freundlich models fit very well, while other fit at >26 oC. Values for the free energy change, enthalpy change, and entropy change indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The negative value of ΔGo at different temperatures indicate that at low temperatures, physical adsorption occurs, whereas at higher temperatures, its value become more negative and chemisorption occurs, revealing the orbital interaction between adsorbate and adsorbent molecules.read more

Rubina Bibi, Muhammad Tariq, Rida Fatima, Mahboob Ahmad Butt, M. Rehan H. Shah Gilani, Hafiz Badaruddin Ahmad, Waqar Ahmad, Ayesha Imtiaz, Yasir Arbaz, Fatima Tuz Zahra,

Preparation and Catalytic Performance of the Copper-Manganese-Silicon Catalysts for Dehydrogenation Reaction of 2-butanol

Cu-Mn-Si catalysts with copper-manganese oxides as the main constituents and silica dioxide as the supports were prepared by co-precipitation method. The performance of the catalysts for the dehydrogenation reaction of the 2-butanol to methyl ethyl ketone was tested. The effects of Cu and Mn ratios on the catalytic performance were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM, H2-TPR, TG, BET and XPS, to reveal the catalytic mechanism. The results showed that after adding the manganese, the copper-manganese complexes were formed in the catalysts, which effectively improved the activity of the catalysts. XRD results showed that a new phase of Cu-Mn complex was formed in the fresh catalysts, and reduced copper species appeared in the spent catalysts; TPR results showed that the reduction temperature of the catalysts could be reduced by adding appropriate amount of manganese; XPS results showed that the proportion of Cu++Cu0 can be increased in the fresh catalyst and that of Cu2+ in the spent catalyst can be decreased after the addition of manganese. When the mole ratio of Cu, Mn and Si in the catalysts was 0.8:0.2:1, the conversion of 2-butanol could reach 94.9%, and the selectivity of methyl ethyl ketone was 98%.read more

Li Zhang, ChaoQun Chen, XingTong Li and Ying Zhang

Green Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Investigation of Ni(II) and Cu(II) Complexes Constructed by Pyridine-2,6-Dicarboxylic Acid

Two complexes [Ni(pda)(H2pda)]·3H2O (1) and [Cu(pda)(H2pda)] (2) containing pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (H2pda) were synthesized by room-temperature solid state reaction and characterized by elemental analyses, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), single crystal X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The powder complexes were confirmed as single phase with their PXRD. The thermal property was studied using simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) techniques. The complexes were decomposed in several stages and the final products of their thermal decomposition were NiO and CuO, respectively. In order to explore application of the complexes, the nano-NiO and nano-CuO particles were produced by using the powder complexes as precursors at different temperatures. The particles were characterized and observed by PXRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and their average diameters of the pyrolysis products at 500 °C were about 12 and 30 nm, respectively.read more

Xi Jiang, Zhao-Hui Chen, Huan Luo, Rong-Gui Yang, Ting Liu and Guo-Qing Zhong

Photodegradation of Rhodamine B by CeO2-CuO Binary Composite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Self-Combustion Method

A novel binary composite CeO2-CuO has been synthesized via self-combustion method employing cerium and copper nitrates, and glycine as fuel, and was investigated as photocatalyst to test the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye with visible light. The nanocomposite has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to establish the temperature of calcination, X-ray diffraction (XRD) structural and morphologic analysis, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), which enables the chemical characterization/elemental analysis of materials, the photoluminescence (PL), UV-Vis Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), measurement of specific surface (SBET ) by N2 adsorption and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) analysis. The XRD diffractogram shows that the composite is majorly composed of 65.2% CeO2 and 34.8 % CuO. The nanoscaled-tested samples have an average particle size of 40 to 65 nm. The energy gap of the material as synthesized was 2.05 eV. The TPR curves show 2 peaks of hydrogen consumption in the sample, corresponding to the decrease (reduction) of CuO particles caused by their interaction with CeO2.The results of the photocatalytic tests show 28% conversion in the photodegradation of RhB organic pollutant during 180 min under visible light. The CeO2- CuO material could be reused for treatment of wastewater during several cycles, which demonstrates its stability for the process.read more

W. Bouchal, F. Djani, A. Martlnez-Arias, Dj. E. Mazouzi and S. Rezgui

Coordination Complexes of Copper, Silver and Gold with SNO Group Containing Thiosemicarbazones Schiff Base Ligands and their Biological Applications

The thiosemicarbazone Schiff base ligand is very important segment for chemistry, more specifically coordination chemistry. These compounds and their complexes widely used as medicinal agents for different lethal diseases such as cancer and other contagious disease caused by bacteria. The coordinated metal (coinage) complexes exhibited higher activities than free ligand for all the biological investigation of anticancer and antibacterial activities. The TSCs ligands having polydentate S-N-O coordinating sites. The mode of coordination of these ligands is flexible, it can act as tridentate or bidentate ligand. These ligand form mostly square planar complexes with copper, silver and gold metal ions. This research content could guide to identify the synthesized biomaterial. In this review, copper, silver, gold complexes are comprehensively summarized, and their activities and mechanism are documented. This review will provide very cut-edge guide of TSCs and their complexes to use in different field.read more

Md. Mohiuddin and Md. Azharul Arafath

TFA Mediated Ring-Opening for Evodiamine to Prepare Novel Tryptamine Derivatives

A convenient feasible protocol was developed for the preparation of novel tryptamine derivatives from evodiamine. After the general alkylation in N-13 and followed by the treatment of TFA in chloroform, a series of tryptamine derivatives 4a-i were successfully synthesized in a good yield, which were immediately cyclized to form alcohol 5 in the condition of NaOH/methanol.read more

Hongzhuo Wei, XH Wang, Weihang Guo, Y. H Wang and C. K. Zhao

Synthesis, Characterization, DFT Calculations and Anticoagulant Activity of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical N-Aryl Thiourea Derivatives

The present study reports a methodology for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical thiourea derivatives 1-9, which have been prepared in good overall yields from condensation reactions between phenylisothiocyanate and different primary amines. The structures of all products were confirmed by the spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, and NMR). These derivatives were tested for anticoagulant activity using PT and APTT reagents, and those reagents are considered also a controller, the results showed that the theN-aryl thiourea derivatives have very high anticoagulant activity. Theoretical calculations based on DFT/B3LYP method have been performed in order to get insights into the molecular geometry and chemical reactivity of the studied compounds.read more

Rekia Nabti, Nasser Belboukhari, Khaled Sekkoum, Noureddine Boulenouar, Houssem Boulebd and Salah Akkal

Synthesis, Characterization, Enhanced Solubility and Antioxidant Activity of the Inclusion Compound of 2-Amino-N-o-tolyl-benzamide and Beta Cyclodextrin

The objectives of this research, were to study the effect of beta cyclodextrin on the enhancement of the solubility and the antioxidant activity of 2-Amino-N-o-tolyl-benzamide (ATB). ATB was obtained by a new synthesis method and used to form inclusion compound macromolecule with -CD. The characterization of the ATB and the complex were subsequently established by FT-IR; 1H NMR; 13C NMR; NMR 2D spectra and XRD. The optical activity was measured. The interaction of β-CD and ATB was also analyzed by UV-Vis spectroscopy in order to determine the formation constant. The stoichiometry of the complex was 1:1. Furthermore, the solubility and antioxidant activity of ATB were significantly enhanced upon complexation with β CD.read more

A.Ben Hadj Amor, A. Mezni and R. Abderrahim

Organocatalyzed Synthesis, DNA Binding and Microbial Studies of Warfarin Analogues

A noval chiral sec-amine/amidine-base hybrid catalyst, N [S-carbonylprolyl] cyclohexyl Amine is described, which is able to catalyze conjugate addition of 6-Methyl-4-hydroxypyran and 2-Hydroxy-naphthaquinone with various benzylideneacetones through Michael reactions that directly gives anticoagulant Warfarin analogues. These analogues were prepared in good yields (54–82%) and in good enantiomeric excess (50–75%). Identification of synthesized compounds was done by physio-chemical properties and spectral analysis (1H-NMR & 13C-NMR).These compounds were further investigated for their antimicrobial (antibacterial & antifungal) activities and DNA-binding studies. Antimicrobial studies were carried out by Disc Diffusion while DNA-binding studies were carried out by Cyclic Voltammetry and UV-Visible spectroscopy. These studies showed that the compounds showed significant interaction with DNA. Some analogues also imparted prominent antimicrobial activities.read more

Shaista Sabir and Naghmmana Rashid