Adsorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution by Zirconium-Modified Artificial Zeolites: Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Mechanism

Artificial zeolites (AZ) and AZ modified with zirconium cation (AZZ) were fabricated in this work. AZ and AZZ, which were characterized by SEM and XRD, showed that AZZ was the composite of AZ and ZrO2. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of AZ and AZZ towards fluoride removal in water were consistent with the Langmuir and pseudo-second-order models, respectively. AZZ had better fluoride adsorption capacity than AZ. The maximal adsorption capacity of fluoride onto AZZ reached up to 128.2 mg/g. Moreover, the thermodynamic studies illustrated that the adsorption procedure was spontaneous and endothermic. The effect of solution pH on AZZ fluoride adsorption was also investigated, and the results showed that the more acidic the fluoride solution, the better the fluoride adsorption capacity. After five cycles of regeneration, the adsorption capacity of AZZ was maintained at 78 %. Based on zeta potential measurements, this work proposed that the electrostatic attraction between AZZ and fluoride ions (F-) should be the mechanism for F- adsorption onto AZZ in more

Zanen Wu, Xia Chen and Shibiao Wu

Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with PMBP: A Sensitive Sensor for Electrochemical Detection of Acetaminophen

In this present work, a sensitive electrocatalytic modified electrode based on 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (PMBP)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) was successfully developed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, square wave voltammetry, chronocoulometry and cyclic voltammetry were used in prompt to evaluate the PMBP/MWCNT/CPE electrochemical capacity in detecting acetaminophen (APAP) in 0.1 M PBS pH 6.4. Under optimized conditions, PMBP/MWCNT/CPE displayed a well-defined electrocatalytic activity towards APAP oxidation in the linear responses which range from 1 μM to 1 mM (R2 = 0.991) with the LOD obtained at 0.245 μM while LOQ 0.816 μM. The presence of excess (10-fold and 25-fold) interferents such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, potassium nitrate, lysine, potassium chloride and magnesium chloride as interferents was insignificant. The results presented in this study provide new perspectives on PMBP as a potential nanomaterial in the development of APAP sensors. As a conclusion, the PMBP/MWCNT/CPE revealed good stability, reproducibility, and repeatability, and was discovered to be relevant for usage in the pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory more

Emi Norzehan, Mohamad Mahbob, Mohamad Syahrizal Ahmad, Illyas Md Isa, Norhayati Hashim, Anwar Ul-Hamid, Mohamad Idris Saidin and Suyanta M. Si

Poly (ether sulfone) (PES)/polystyrene (PS) Thermoplastic Polymer Blend: Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulation Methods and Experimental to Miscibility Evaluation

In this study, poly (ether sulfone) (PES)/polystyrene (PS) thermoplastic polymer blend miscibility was looked at using both molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experiments. In particular, the parameters of the Flory-Huggins interaction and the heat of mixing of poly (ether sulfone) (PES)/polystyrene (PS) blends at different compositions were calculated from MD simulation. For the PES/PS blend, both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and MD simulation showed that they are immiscible at PES/PS: 80/20,60/40 ratios. The degree of compatibility of the 20/80 and 40/60 PES/PS blends is higher than that of a PES-rich blend. This thermodynamic behavior was found to be due mainly to intermolecular interactions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results confirmed this observation. Results show that the calculated 𝜒 value is positive at the compositions of PES/PS: 80/20 and 60/40, which confirmed that the polymer mixtures were immiscible at these compositions. The miscibility between PES and PS at these ratios is attributed to favorable van der Waals interactions. Also, the results of the DREIDING 2.21 force field show that electrostatic energy, bond angle bending energy, and bond stretching energy may be to blame for the immiscibility of certain composition polymer blends (PES/PS: 80/20 and 60/40).read more

Fateme Kouhestani, MohamadAli Torangi, Alireza MotavalizadehkakhkyReza karazhyan and Rahele Zhiani

Development Metronidazole Nanocomposite as Anti-inflammatory Agent for Athletes using Full Factorial Design

This work considers the optimization and characterization of metronidazole-calcium alginate nanoparticles (MET-AlgNPs) by an ionotropic gelation technique. The effect of the amount of sodium alginate (Alg), metronidazole, and calcium chloride (CaCl2) as the factors affecting drug loading efficiency (LE), particle size and potential of formulations were optimized and analyzed by using multiple regressions. These formulations were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), zeta size and potential, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in vitro drug release studies. XRD, FTIR, and TGA analysis indicated the presence of drug in MET-AlgNPs nanocomposites. In vitro drug released from nanocomposites was carried out and showed that the release rate of MET from the MET-AlgNPs nanocomposites was very slow. These results indicate an extended release of the drug from its respective nanocomposites, and therefore these nanocomposites have good potential to be used as extended-release formulations of the more

Hazem Abdul Kader Sabbagh, ,Samer Hasan Hussein-Al-Ali, Zead Abudayeh, Rami AyoubQais Ibrahim Abdallah Abualassa and Nashwan Abdallah Nashwan

Documentation of Ethnomedicinal Uses of Wild Plants Growing in Kodo Mountain by Kurdish Tribe of Iraq

Medicinal plants have a long history of different uses and are still of great importance in the daily life of the Kurds living in the Kurdistan province of Iraq. The present review provides comprehensive phytochemical and pharmacological information about medicinal plants growing in the Kodo Mountain area. In fact, no systematic study of the bioresources from this unique region has yet been reported in the scientific literature, even if local villagers have been consuming several plants as nutrition and ethnomedical food for centuries, until today. The data reported in this paper were obtained through interviews with local herbal healers and people living in villages around the Kodo Mountains. They concern 40 plants belonging to 16 botanical families, which are considered medicinal by the local population. The present study recorded and examined the demographic information given by the study participants, the local names and the parts used of the plants, the preparation and administration techniques, and the treatments for diseases. The most frequently cited families were Asteraceae (32.5 %), Lamiaceae (10 %), Brassicaceae, Malvaceae, and Papaveraceae (7.5 % each). The main parts of the plants used for medicinal purposes were leaves (36 %) and flowers (29.5 %). They were administered as decoctions (42 %), raw (26 %), or powder (14 %). Several important phytochemicals have been isolated from the used plants, including flavonoids (60 %), terpenoids (45 %), phenolic acids (42.5 %), polyphenolic compounds (40 %), and essential oils (30 %). The plant ethnomedicinal and pharmacological uses were supported by their antibacterial (18%, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae), anti-inflammatory (18%, Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Papaveraceae), anti-oxidant (16%, Malvaceae, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Papaveraceae), anti-cancer (9%, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Asteraceae), anti-parasitic (8%, Asteraceae), hepatoprotective (7%, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Fabaceae), anti-diabetic (5%, Asteraceae, Fabaceae), anti-fungal (5%, Amaryllidaceae, Umbelliferae, Asphodelaceae, Orchidaceae), anti-spasmodic (4%, Asteraceae, Papaveraceae), and diuretic (3%, Asteraceae, Amaryllidaceae, Plantaginaceae) activities. This study illustrates the significance of traditional medicinal plants that have been utilized for treatment and healing the wounds and curing the illnesses Kurdish tribe in Kodo mountain, north-east part of Kurdistan Region in Iraq, that can be used as reference for further investigations for the researchers in more

Faiq H.S. Hussain, Soma Majedi, Tola Abdulsattar Faraj, Mehmet Ozdemir, Javed Ahamad, Tariq H. Karim, Kovan Dilawer Issa and Mohammad Q. Mustafa

Chromatography Free Synthesis of Reversed N-Triazole Nucleosides Starting from D-Galactopyranose using 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions

A chromatography free, four-step strategy has been developed to synthesize reversed N- nucleosides (4A-D) starting from -D-galactopyranose. The triaozle moiety served as heterocyclic part of nucleoside was created via 1,3 dipolar cycloaddition reaction between sugar azide (1,2:3,4-di-O-isopropylidene-6-deoxy-6-azido- -Dgalactopyranoside, 3) and terminal alkyne. Sugar azide 3 was obtained from 1,2:3,4-di-O-isopropylidene-6-tosyl- -Dgalactopyranoside (2). Purification of products was carried out through solvent-solvent extraction and/or crystallization techniques. This is an example of click reaction. Some advantages of click reaction include mild reaction conditions, selectivity, efficiency and high more

Uroosa Aslam, Imran Ali Hashmi, Muhammad Naveed Javed, Shoaib Muhammad, Muhammad Nabeel, Ahmed Bari and Firdous Imran Al

Ozone Assisted Photocatalytic Degradation of Textile Wastewater

In present research, photocatalytic degradation of textile wastewater was investigated through the combined effect of ozonation and photocatalysis processes. Catalytic acids in the nano-particle form under moderate reaction conditions were used for the successful disintegration of contaminants in textile wastewater which in turn increases the process efficiency. Moreover, the combined effect of the photocatalytic-ozonation process after secondary treatment of textile wastewater on discharge requirements of zero discharge hazardous chemicals (ZDHC) by Road to Zero was also studied. Different parameters were optimized like ozone flowrate, catalytic concentration, UV light intensity, and reaction time. Results revealed that overall process efficiency is influenced by ozone and reaction time. In contrast, an increased rate of degradation is attributed to the synthesized TiO2 (anatase) in nanoparticle form. The combined ozone-assisted photo-catalytic process showed the COD, BOD, and TSS removal efficiencies of 91.5%, 94%, and 86% at 25 °C temperature and pH 7-9. The results were attained at optimum conditions like reaction time (140 min), Ozone concentration (2 g/hr), TiO2 concentration (2g/L), and UV energy (88 W), respectively. The study demonstrated the efficiency of an integrated process for the degradation of real textile wastewater. Thus, combined photocatalytic and ozonation processes are known to exhibit better responses than individual processes for pollutants removal from textile more

Muhammad Usman Anwar Khan, Hafiz Miqdad Masood, Najaf Ali and Muhammad Ashraf

Metal Binding Studies of Soil Extracted Humic Acid with K (I), Zn (II) and Fe (III) ions

: Physico chemical parameters of soil samples collected from agriculture lands of Taluka Sobhodaro District Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan were examined to check the quality of soil. Moisture contents percentage, pH and EC values indicated that texture of soils is mostly silt- loam type having water holding ability hence can be considered as good fertile land, beneficial for crops. Humic acids (HAs) were extracted from soil samples by International Humic Substance Society(IHSS) method. HAs form biogeochemical cycle due to presence of electron clouds resultant macro and micro nutrients, transferred to the plants. HAs obtained were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The optical parameter E4/E6 values illustrated that HAs possess high molecular condensation and proved to be hydrophilic and aromatic in nature. To analyze the binding ability with metal ions, isolated HAs were complexed with potassium, zinc and ferric ions under optimized conditions. The concentrations of selected metal ions were detected in complexed HAs samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The data obtained indicated that the maximum concentration of complexation of metal ions was found for K1+at pH 8, Zn2+7 and Fe3+6. The data was correlated and compared with more

Tajnees Pirzada, Abdul Ghaffar Solangi, Mir Munsif Ali Talpur, WeengharAli Chandio and Khadija Memon

Physicochemical Characteristics and Dyeing Properties of Novel Cellulosic Fibers Derived from Sustainable Agricultural Waste

Development of new innovative sustainable fibres from agricultural waste are in great demand these days. For the expansion of these fibres at commercial level, understanding about physicochemical properties of these fibres and specifically their dyeing behavior is essential. In this consequence, in the present study, a natural lignin-cellulosic fibers were extracted by a simplistic route, from lotus silk. The fibers were turn in to yarn by hand twisting and then natural as well as chemical dyeing was performed by the standard dyeing method established for cotton dyeing. Natural henna dye, C.I Reactive blue and indigo dye was used in the present study. Physico chemical properties and dyeing mechanism of the prepared fibers were studied and analyzed in detail in comparison with cotton cellulosic fibres. The lotus fibers were described for their organic construction and morphology by FT-IR spectroscopy and Scanning Electronic Microscopy respectively. Tensile strength, moisture regain and elongation percentage at break were also evaluated. The outcomes revealed that lotus fibers are cellulosic in nature same as cotton but with higher moisture absorption and lower crystallinity as compared to cotton fibers. Lotus fibers revealed higher color strength and color co-ordinates when compared to cotton fibers dyeing. Hollow and irregular fiber surface of lotus fibers along with higher moisture absorption and low crystallinity are the major reasons for higher chemical reactivity and absorption of dyes. The tensile strength and elongation observed in lotus fibers are suitable to be used these fibers in textile products. Lotus fibres from the agricultural waste can be a new source of sustainable textile products for future more

Rabia Almas, Anam Memon, Noor Sanbhal, Zeeshan Khatri

Arduino Controlled Catalytic Pyrolysis of Plastic/Municipal Waste to Higher Hydrocarbons

Worldwide, the broad usage of plastic has resulted in the massive production of plastic pollution. In this work, it was demonstrated that municipal plastic waste could be converted into valuable liquid products. This study shows the catalytic and non-catalytic pyrolysis of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Pyrolysis was carried out in the absence of Oxygen, and three types of fractions: gas, liquid, and solid residues were obtained. The proportions of liquid or gas residue depend on the operating conditions such as temperature and the type of catalyst. The product obtained was then characterized through ASTM D-97, ASTM D-86, ASTM D-4294, Cloud Point, Conradson Carbon Residue, FTIR Analysis, ASTM D-611, Density and Specific Gravity. The use of catalysts showed more quantity of lower boiling points products due to further cracking of carbon chains and pour points decrease was also observed generally with the use of catalyst specially by using bentonite. A decrease in Pour Point indicated a decrease in paraffin content, therefore, reducing wax content, and so it indicated better flow properties at lower temperatures. Pour point and viscosity observed were interconnected with each other, sample having high pour points had high viscosity, hence showing the flowing ability of the liquid. Also, the Sulphur contents of all the samples falling under Euro II and Euro II category. C-Stretching, C=Stretching and C-Bending bonds were noted using the FTIR analysis. One of the important purposes of this study was to convert the waxes obtained from thermal pyrolysis of HDPE and LDPE to higher chain hydrocarbons, which was achieved by using bentonite as the catalyst and also flowing properties of the liquid improved by using the catalyst. HDPE with bentonite gave the highest percent of liquid fuel (75.15%) obtained which in turn shows the best result obtained through all our more

Saad Nadeem,Sajid Muhbat, Kamran Zakaria and Ghulam Mustafa