Effect of Fabricated Nanostructure on Biological Activity of Synthesized Benzamide Cationic Surfactants

Nanomaterials, such as Ag-nanoparticles (AgNPs), have recently been shown to have a broad range of applications in the chemical industry, medicine, biology, and many areas. In this work, the effect of nanostructure on the biological efficiency of prepared surfactants (R10, R12) based on the benzamide group was reported. FTIR and 1HNMR spectra were collected to confirm the structure of these surfactants. In addition, the nanostructures of the prepared surfactants assembled on Ag-nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated using UV and TEM techniques. Moreover, the antimicrobial properties of the prepared surfactants and their associated nanostructures were studied. The results showed that, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, the antibacterial effectiveness of R12AgNPs against all bacteria was better than R12. In contrast, the antibacterial activity of R10AgNPs against all bacteria was lower than R10. This might be explained by the fact that AgNPs were effective on the manufactured surfactant's CMC (R10), which decreased the amount of surfactant molecules at the cell membrane and decreased the antibacterial activity. The outcomes showed that the cationic surfactants (R10, R12) that were synthesized favored AgNP dispersion and enhanced their activity.read more

Eid M. S. Azzam, Abdallah R. Ismail, Khalaf M. Alenezi, Hani El Moll Lassaad Mechi, and Walaa I. El-sofany

Silicon/Silicon Carbide/Graphite Composite Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries by High-Temperature Vacuum Adsorption Method

Recently, the electrode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) draw widespread attention on storing reversibly the electrical energy. For this issue, the expanded graphite and silicon particles are chosen to generate silicon/silicon carbide/graphite composite anode material using a high-temperature vacuum adsorption method. The prepared composites are measured by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectra, et al. The composites are cycled at a current density of 50 mA g-1, in order to observe their potential specific capacity. An initial charge capacity is 566.5 mAh g-1, and its initial Coulombic efficiency is 97.4 %. The reversible specific capacity keeps at 502 mAh g-1 after 80 cycles, displaying a capacity retention of 88.7%read more

Liyong Wang, Mei Wang, Huiqi Wang, Jinhua Yang, Shengsheng Ji, Lei Liu Shengliang Hu and Quangui Guo

Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Zinc and Tungsten Co-Doped Barium Titanate Perovskite for Methylene Blue Degradation under Solar Irradiation

This research delves into the properties of x% ZW-BT compounds (x=3% and 7%), synthesized using a solid-state reaction approach. Utilizing X-ray diffraction, the crystal structure of the x% ZW-BT compositions is confirmed, showcasing a distinct tetragonal symmetry devoid of any parasitic phases. With increasing dopant concentrations, slight reductions in lattice parameters are observed, signifying the even diffusion of dopant (Zn2+ and W6+) ions. Moreover, the validation of metal-oxygen bonding vibrations is achieved through Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) reveals consistent granular arrangements and clear elemental signatures in both compositions. Notably, photocatalytic experiments highlight remarkable degradation rates; within 100 minutes, 3% and 7% ZW-BT achieve degradation levels of 78.04% and 88.9% respectively. These findings underscore the significant potential of these compounds for environmentally friendly photocatalytic applications.read more

Hayet Menasra, Fatima Adjal, Chaima Benbrika, Lakhdar Smaili, Karima Bounab Zelikha Necira and Amara Elfetni

Design, Synthesis, Characterization and Modification of Novel Aromatic Compounds with Poly Vinyl Alcohol

New aromatic compounds were prepared by reacting 5,5'-methylene di-anthranilic acid with 4,4'-(diazene-1,2-diyl) dibenzoyl chloride by the well-known classical methods. To prepare compounds to contain an amide, ester, and azo groups as a bonding bridge between them. The synthesized was characterized by CHN, FT-IR, 1HNMR, and 13CNMR spectra. Then, they were reacted with polyvinyl alcohol PVA polymer using cold-warm esterification to prepare new graft polymers. The structures of the composites were determined by FT-IR. Graft polymerization of PVA with new aromatic compounds was a way to prepare important polymeric materials with original physicochemical properties for use in new industrial applications. By testing aromatic derivatives the swelling results of the newly prepared graft polymers were very good, ranging from 3-665%, with a life span of a quarter of an hour to three days. While DSC analysis showed good temperatures in the range of 23.4-289.2°C for the prepared graft polymers.read more

Zainab A. Jabarah, Maysoon T. Tawfiq and Israa sh. A.R. Al- Kadi

Energy-Efficient Nanostructured Ion Exchange Membranes from Functionalized Poly (2,6-Dimethyl-1,4-Phenylene Oxide)

Highly energy efficient and ion permeable ion exchange membranes are in high demand in many modern sectors to clean water, transform energy, and store energy in devices like electro-dialyzer, fuel cells, and batteries. However, greater resistance and reduction in ion permeation of conventional membranes dictate the desire for nanostructured functional ion exchange membranes. This project proposes the fabrication of ion exchange membranes using electroactive nanostructured polyaniline incorporation into ion exchange materials, electrostatically interaction between polymer and nanostructured electroactive material overcomes the problem of high resistance and less ion permeation. Solution casting and post-drying techniques are used for membrane casting. Nanostructured electroactive material helps to increase ionic conduction thus reducing 17% resistance for functional cation exchange membrane (FCEM) and 12% for functional anion exchange membrane (FAEM) also assisting to increase ion permeation. Hydrophilic nanostructured polyaniline electroactive material holds more water and increases water uptake. Cross-linking increases stability as well as reduces 17% and 8% swelling degrees for FCEM and FAEM respectively. Besides the electrochemical property offers an increase limiting current density of 38%, 23% for FCEM and FAEM respectively, and 19% higher desalination performance than non-nanostructured sulfonated polyphenylene oxide (CEM) and quaternized polyphenylene oxide (AEM) membranes.read more

Muhammad Farman, Farhat Yasmeen, Muhammad Aamir Shehzad, Hafiz Muhammad Raoof and Muhammad Idrees Jilani

Separation and Spectroscopic Determination of Ge(IV) as an Ion Pair Association Complex Using DB18C6 Ligand

A solvent extraction was applied using liquid ion exchange as a sensitive method to extract Germanium (IV) as anion complex K[GeO2(OH)2]- from basic media of KOH by used DB18C6 as a ligand dissolved in chloroform to form the ion pair association complex K-DB18C6+; K[GeO2(OH)2]-, the maximum wavelength of the extracted complex was λmax=290nm, and molar absorptive 1.269×103 L/mol.cm. the Beer's –lambert law was adhered to within the specified range (1-20)ppm. The limits of detection and quantity were 0.034 and 0.102 ppm, respectively. The research studied optimal conditions of extraction efficiency, such as KOH concentration, shaking time, methanol effect, and electrolyte effect. In addition, a new spectrophotometric method was utilized to determine the remain of Ge(IV) in aqueous solutions and to calculate its distribution ratio (D) using Janus green B. This method was more sensitive when comparing the results with previous studies. DB18C6 as a ligand was used to determine Germanium (IV) in some canned foods widely sold in Iraq.read more

Safa Majeed Hameed, Sahar Aqeel Hussain, Mohammed Alaa Abdulzahra, and Fawzi Yahya Wadday

Visible light photocatalytic inactivation of resistant Escherichia coli by SiC/g-C3N4

SiC/g-C3N4 (SCN) was synthesized to inactivated the resistant bacteria; and the binding of SiC to g-C3N4 was simply determined by FT-IR. Plasmid pET-28a(+) carrying kanamycin resistance was transformed into the competence of Escherichia coli (E. coli), and its positive bacteria was used as the object of photocatalytic inactivation. Catalytic conditions were optimized, under which the bactericidal kinetics and reuse of the materials were studied. The photoelectric reaction and light absorption were studied by electrochemical workstation and UV-vis DRS. In addition, potassium dichromate (Cr6+), isopropanol (IPA), methanol (MTA), sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4) and 4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPOL) were used to study the photocatalytic mechanism. FT-IR results showed that SCN was successfully synthesized, and the positive E. coli was obtained. Under optimal inactivation conditions, SCN had good reusability. Photoelectric experiments showed that the photogenerated electrons (e-) and holes (h+) were more easily separated, and SCN has a larger spectral absorption range and a lower band gap. According to the kinetic study, SCN and g-C3N4 had great advantages in sterilization efficiency. Mechanism study showed that e-, h+, hydrogen oxygen radicals (·OH) and superoxide radicals (·O2-) were generated in the photocatalytic process, and ·O2- played the most important roles in inactivation.read more

Wenming Jiang, Chaoxia Wang, Rujira Sukhotu, Shiyang Zhou, Ying Yuan, Le Li and Jingjing Yang

Activation of C(SP3)–H Bonds Promoted Oxidation of Sulfides by O2 Under Catalyst-Free Conditions

Oxidation of organic sulfides is a significant reaction due to its application in many fields. Herein, we have developed a novel catalyst-free oxidation of organic sulfides by O2 under relatively mild conditions. The choice of the procedure was based on the well-acknowledged reactivity of the active C(sp3)-H bond of organic compounds to form the corresponding alkyl carbon free radicals (R·) in the presence of O2. The results showed that hydrocarbons such as tetrahydronaphthalene (THN) and cumene possessing the active C(sp3)-H bonds due to their lower bond dissociation energy (BDE), as a solvent, markedly promoted this catalyst-free sulfoxidation. It has been proved that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this reaction are alkyl-peroxide radicals that are produced from R·, which is derived from the homolytic cleavage of the active C(sp3)-H bond with the help of heating and dioxygen, and further its activation of molecular oxygen. On this basis, combined with the DFT calculation of the activation energy of two reaction pathways, a possible reaction mechanism is proposed. The work provided a green synthesis approach of sulfoxide and sulfone compounds, and a scientific basis for a green process of ultra-deep desulfurization of fuel oils.read more

Zufeng Wang, Hongyi Wang, Zhiying Zhao, Yu Zhu, Youer Deng, Xiaolong Li, Dan Zeng, Yachun Liu, Chao Zhang and Zaihui Fu

Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Benzopyran Derivatives Based on Microwave-Mediated Molecular Cyclization

Almost all of synthetic strategies of benzopyran derivatives suffer from some drawbacks such as multistep sequence, time consuming and expensive purification processes, by-products, low product yields, or longer reaction time. So we recently reported an efficient method that three new benzopyran derivatives were synthesized, 2-amidogen-3-phenylsulfonyl-4-tolyl-4H-benzochroene(4A), 2-amidogen-3-phenylsulfonyl-4-nitrophenyl-4H-benzochroene ( 4B ) and 2-amidogen-3-phenylsulfonyl-4-ethylphenyl)-4H-benzochroene(4C) by the multicomponent reaction (MCR)of 1-naphthol , aromatic aldehydes and benzenesulfonyl acetonitrile s via solvent-free using piperidine as catalyst. This method has many advantages, such as high yield, wide range of substrates, simple experiment, short reaction time, and easy availability of raw materials. The prepared product was characterized and confirmed by 1H NMR, HR-ESI-MS and 13C NMR. At the same time, the antibacterial evaluation of three benzochromene derivatives was further screened for minimum bactericidal concentration.read more

Yuan Ji, Li Hu and Zhengyu Zhang

Synthesis and Characterization of 1,4-Dibromo-5H-benzo[a]phenothiazin-5-one and 8,13-Dibromo-7H-naphtho[2,3-a]phenothiazin-7-one for Use as Novel Fingermark Visualisation Reagents

In the presented study, novel compounds bearing the benzo[a]phenothiazine or naphtho[a]phenothiazin skeletons were developed for the first time as fingermark detecting reagents on paper surfaces which were then investigated in detail. First, two phenothiazine derivatives, 1,4-dibromo-5H-benzo[a]phenothiazin-5-one and 8,13-dibromo-7H-naphtho[2,3-a]phenothiazin-7-one were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The phenothiazines were tested as potential reagents for latent fingermarks on copier paper and were then compared with 1,8-diazofluoren-9-one (DFO). Both compounds reacted with latent fingermarks on the paper to yield photoluminescent prints with high contrast and quality and were slightly inferior to DFO. In addition, the results also revealed that they could also develop fingermarks aged up to three-months.read more

Kıymet Berkil Akar, Oğuzhan Bebek and Barış Eran