Fabrication of Porous Co3O4 Arrays by a Co-Precipitation Method and it Application as a Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensor

The porous cobaltosic oxide (Co3O4) arrays has been prepared by a chemical co-precipitation route using the nickel foam as s substrate. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), and ampere current method (i-t curve) are used to explore the non-enzymatic glucose sensor in a three-electrode system. This porous Co3O4 array non-enzymatic sensor shows a sensitivity of 592.8 mA mM1 cm2 in concentration from 0.99 M to 1.073 mM. The porous Co3O4 array sensor electrode also showed low LOD value (0.005 M) and fast response time (4 s). This porous Co3O4 electrode shows a good sensor performance due to these rich redox reaction sites in the unique porous structure. This porous cobaltosic oxide arrays maybe a potential sensor material in the glucose detection applicationread more

Jie Zhang, Ri Xia, Xianchun Li and Jiasheng Xu

Removal of Food Dye Tartrazine (E102) from Aqueous Solution using ZnO and CuO-TiO2 as Photocatalysts

Tartrazine dye has a major role in food as well as in other industrial products, like cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceutical products and many more, therefore it is the cause of many environmental pollutions particularly water pollution. Its removal from water bodies is almost impossible with traditional techniques, because of heterogeneity in its composition. This investigation was carried out to examine the photo-catalytic degradation of food dye tartrazine (E102) from its aqueous solution, using ZnO (zinc oxide) and mixed CuO-TiO2 (copper oxide-titanium dioxide) as photo-catalysts at room temperature. The influence of several parameters, such as pH of medium, time of irradiation, concentration of dye solution and amount of catalyst was investigated. Kinetic analysis was also carried out using Langmuir – Hinshelwood approach. Maximum Photo-Catalytic Degradation (PCD) of E102 was observed to be at pH 1. Similarly significant rise in the degradation of E102 was observed with the time of irradiation, concentration of dye solution and amount of catalyst. From the results obtained it was observed that ZnO and CuO-TiO2 are effective photo-catalysts for the removal of E102 from its aqueous solution. However ZnO was observed to be more effective than CuO-TiO2 in the degradation of E102 from aqueous solution.read more

Mumtaz Hussain, Maheem Farid, Sumbal, Nabila Ali, Savira Karam, and Muhammad Azam Khan

Native Biofilm Used in Mediated Method for Toxicity Measurement

A native biofilm (NBF) bioreactor for monitoring total toxicity in water was developed in this article. Specific objectives include the investigation of (i) the NBF was introduced in toxicity measurement, and (ii) the immobilized microorganisms on carbon fiber felts are adopted for mediator toxicity assay. Culture conditions of NBF with 35 ◦C and 24 h were adopted, and a measuring condition with 45 mM ferricyanide (at pH 7) was optimized. Under the above conditions, NBF bioreactor was successfully employed to assess toxicities of four toxicants. By adopting the NBF, the IC50 values obtained were much lower than that of the single bacterium as the test microorganism. Furthermore, the long-term storage stability was examined. The result showed that the activity of the microorganisms of NBF was found to be roughly the same within 42 days. We confirmed that this NBF combined with mediator toxicity assay may be served as an early warning for affecting public health and avoiding environmental pollution.read more

Daming Yong, Dangqin Jin, Yajun Fan, Ruihong Yang, Qichao Wu, Jie Tian and Xiaojun Han

Synthesis of New Series of Transition Metal Complexes with Poly (Pyrazolyl) Borates

In structuring catalysis enzyme and chemistry, tridentate ligands and Scorpionate ligands are of significant worth. This study presents the synthesis of a tris(pyrazolyl)borate ligand to be utilized in transition metal complexes as possible redox shuttles. Complexes of general formula [AgTp], [MIIITp (Cl2)] (M = Fe, Co), Tp = tri (1-pyrazolyl) borohydride and [AgTp*], [FeIIITp*(Cl2)], Tp* = tris (3, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl) borohydride were synthesized and characterized in solid state. The Tp ligands were considered triply coordinated with the metal center with two bounded chloride atoms as per the information gathered from spectroscopic information. Entire preparations and operations were performed under argon using common Schlenk procedures. Elemental analysis was performed using (the EURO EA instrument). Thermolysis shows that the Tp ligand decomposes around 100oC and above 300oC for some complexes. The composites were simple to compose, yielded high yields, and were reasonably air sensitive. This study has examined the synthesis of a tris(pyrazolyl)borohydride ligand to develop an iron complex. Further studies conducting electrochemical tests should be carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of this likely redox mediator.read more

Akef Ibrahim Alhmaideen, Hamzeh M. Abdel-Halim, Assala A. Al-Twal and Adnan S. Abu-Surrah

Photocatalytic Degradation of Malachite Green Dye with UV/H2O2 System in presence of Transition Metal Ions

The chemical degradation of Malachite Green dye has been studied by using UV/H2O2 system in presence of transition metal ions (Fe2+, Mn2+ and Ti2+). The degradation reaction was carried out by circulating the aqueous dye solution in a custom-made UV reactor with the help of a variable speed peristaltic pump. The effects of initial concentration of dye, concentration of Hydrogen peroxide, operating temperature, pH, Ultrasound vibrations and transition metal ions were investigated on the time required for complete degradation of the dye. It has been found that under optimum conditions the dye could be degraded in minimum possible time especially in presence of transition metals like iron. The intermediate products obtained during the degradation process were subjected to FTIR spectroscopy for structural analysis. The residue spectra did not show any band revealing the presence of any aromatic ring. To check the completion of the reaction the final residue was analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC). All such tests indicated that the dye has been completely degraded leaving no detectable residueread more

Waheed-uz-Zaman, Amara Dar, Jamil Anwar and Ayesha Munir

GC-MS Analysis and Biological Effects of Essential Oil from Trachyspermum ammi L

Trachyspermum ammi L, local seed’s essential oil and its crude methanolic extract were evaluated for antioxidant, antibacterial, and urease inhibition activities. Largely, 18 constituents were identified in the essential oil using The GC-MS. The promising constituent reported was terpeniodes; which seem to be responsible for the reported biological activities. DPPH Free radica1 scavenging assay was done to evaluate the antioxidant activities of both oil and crude extract. The DPPH scavenging activity results in lC50 values of 75 ± 0.05 and 300 ± 0.03. Antibacterial activity of the oil was carried out by using strains of Escherichia coli (89%), Bacillus subtilis (85%), and Streptococcus aureus (80%), while for the crude extract strains of E. coli (86%) B. subtle (89%), and S. aureus; (85%) were used. E. coil of T. ammi exhibits promising results with Aspergillus. flavus1 (86%) and Aspergillus1 Niger1 (87%). The phytochemical analysis of the T. ammi, crude extract showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and cardiac glycosides in the phytochemical investigation. Urease inhibition showed potent inhibition against B.P and J.B Urease with IC50 values of 85 ± 0.06 and 67.45 ± 0.8, respectively. Plant crude showed optimal results for B.P and Jack bean urease with IC50 values of 55.77 ± 0.01 and 35.56 ± 0.04, respectively.read more

Shahnaz, Hidayat Ullah Khan, Rani Begum, Fozia, Shaista Parveen and Afzal Shah

Study the Effect of Zwitterionic Hydrophilic Interaction for Simultaneous Determination of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Dosage Forms

Flurbiprofen and ketorolac are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that include both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups in their structures. By connecting sulfobetaine molecules to polystyrene-divinylbenzene particles, two ZIC-HILIC stationary phases (ZIC-SB1 and ZIC-SB4) were developed for chromatographic separation of NSAIDs with varying chain lengths using Ultraviolet as detection. The different chain lengths of the stationary phases are utilized to investigate the retention behaviour of NSAIDs. Simultaneous quantification methods for ZIC-HILIC were developed. Flurbiprofen and ketorolac exhibited high precision with a small relative standard deviation (RSD) value of 0.48%, linear ranges of 0.015-6 and 0.06-4.5 ppm and detection limits of 0.009-0.006 and 0.01-0.008 ppm with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9995-0.9997 for the ZIC-SB1 and ZIC-SB4 stationary phases, respectively. Statistical testing was used to compare the approaches to the British Pharmacopoeia protocol, and no difference in accuracy was discovered.read more

Ali Amer Waheb, Ashraf Saad Rasheed and Mohammed J. M. Hassan

Synthesis, Spectroscopic Analysis, Biological Evaluation, and In Silico Studies of Novel Benzenesulfonate-Derived Schiff-Mannich Bases

In the current study, 3-formyl phenyl benzenesulfonate is created by reacting 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde with benzene sulfonyl chloride, which is aided by triethylamine. Nine unique (Z)-3-[(3-substituted-5-oxo-1,5-dihydro-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)-iminomethyl] compounds were formed through the reaction of a manufactured 3-formyl phenyl benzenesulfonate chemical with nine 3-alkyl(aryl)-4-amino-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, as detailed in the existing literature. Phenyl benzene sulfonate (S) compounds were purchased. Through the reaction of the Schiff bases that were made a secondary amine, such as morpholine with formaldehyde, heterocyclic Mannich bases of a unique kind were created. Five recently found (Z)-3-[(3-substituted-5-oxo-1,5-dihydro-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)-iminomethyl] compounds are presented in this work. By reacting phenyl benzene sulfonate (S) with morpholine in the presence of formaldehyde, five new (Z)-3-[(3-substituted-1-(morpholinomethyl)-5-oxo-1,5-dihydro-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)-iminomethyl] compounds were created. Chemical compounds fall under the category of phenylbenzene sulfonates (M). Utilizing IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, fourteen recently novel compounds' chemical structures were examined. The ability of the freshly synthesized Schiff and morpholine-derived Mannich bases to obstruct the acetylcholinesterase enzyme's (AChE) activity was also assessed. The 1,2,4-triazole functional group was modified by adding various groups at the 1 and 3 positions, resulting in a collection of compounds (S1–9 and M1, 2, 4, 5, 7). It was determined whether these synthetic compounds could prevent the human recombinant AR enzyme from working in vitro, and the findings were validated using molecular docking, molecular mechanics, and ADME analyses. To better understand this mechanism, synthetic Schiff and Mannich base derivatives as well as the positive control substance quercetin were tested using molecular docking against the human recombinant AR enzyme in vitro. To assess the drug-like properties of Schiff and Mannich base analogs, a series of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties were analyzed theoretically.read more

Ahmet Harmankaya, Namık Kılınç, Murat Beytur, Yonca Yılmaz, Sevda Manap and Haydar Yüksek

Synthesis of Iron oxide Nanoparticle using Propolis from Northern Cyprus and Evaluation of its Antibacterial, Anticancer Potential on MDA-MB 231 cells

Research in nanotechnology has progressed in the last decades, and it is purposeful to explore the applications of biocompatible nanoparticles in general and their anticancer attribute specifically. This study is aimed at examining the cytotoxic effects of biocompatible Northern Cyprus propolis extract of iron oxide nanoparticles (PE-Fe2O3-NPs) on MDA-MB-231 epithelial human breast cancer cell line, in vitro. Propolis extract were used to obtain PE-Fe2O3-NPs and further characterized using several methods like ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The PE-Fe2O3-NPs has a distinctive Surface Plasmon Resonance band at 350 nm. The prepared PE-Fe2O3-NPs had a size of 108 nm by diameter with a zeta potential of +33.9 mV which indicates a good stability of the nanoparticles’ while the size of Fe2O3-NPs was 89.40 nm by diameter. Antibacterial result showed that Fe2O3-NPs has highest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration as compared to PE-Fe2O3-NPs with different concentration of propolis extract as regards the tested microorganisms. This indicates that PE-Fe2O3-NPs possesses a more effective threat to eliminating pathogenic bacteria at lesser dosages, be it Gram-ve or Gram+ve. PE-Fe2O3-NPs effectively halted the spread of MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines and thus, prove to be commendable for anticancer biomedical uses.read more

Sunday Onyebuchi Ukanwa and Erkay Özgör

Synthesis, Structural Elucidation, and Therapeutic Screening of Organotin(IV) derivatives of oxo-ethyl carbonodithioate

Exploring the therapeutic potential of organotin-based oxo-ethyl carbonodithioates, a series of organotin(IV) thiocarboamates (1-5) were synthesized with diverse alkyl and phenyl substituents. The chemical- composition, morphology, theoretical properties, and drug-DNA binding capabilities of the synthesized derivatives were performed by applying different characterization techniques like FT-IR, NMR (1H, 13C), AFM, DFT analysis, and UV-Vis spectroscopy respectively. The NMR data indicated six and four coordinated geometries, while the AFM results revealed smart surfaces concerning the grain size and root mean square (RMS) roughness, signifying catalytic and biocidal uses. The drug-DNA binding via intercalative mode of interaction with blue and red shifts was determined by using using UV spectroscopy. The in vitro biocidal capacity of selected complexes was evaluated against typical bacterial, fungal, cytotoxic, and leishmanial strains respectively. As a result of the surface and biocidal characterization, the synthesized complexes may be applied with greater potential in biomedical, pharmaceutical, infectious, catalysis, and cosmetics industriesread more

Fatima Javed, Saqib Ali, Khurram Shahzad Munawar, Ali Haider, N. A. Shah and Z. Rashid