Spectra Study of the Photolysis of Aqueous Thiamine Hydrochloric and Ascorbic Acid Solutions in the presence and Absence of Riboflavin

The UV and visible absorption characteristics of thiamine hydrochloride, riboflavin and ascorbic acid have been studied in pH range 1.0-11.0 in relation to the photochemical interaction of thiamine Hydrochloride/ascorbic acid with riboflavin due to overlapping of their adsorption bands in UV region. The spectral variation in thiamine hydrochloride and ascorbic and solutions on `photolysis in the presence and absence of riboflavin have been monitored and the effects of pH of the nature of these variations has been discussed. A comparison of the magnitude of spectral variations in the presence and absence of riboflavin indicates that the photolysis of thiamine hydrochloride is inhibited by riboflavin whereas that of ascorbic acid is promoted by riboflavin. The non-ionized forms of thiamine hydrochloride and ascorbic acid appear to be less susceptible to photolysis than the ionized forms. Thiamine hydrochloride and ascorbic acid are more stable to photo degradation in the acid range in the presence and absence of riboflavin.read more


Removal of Copper (II) Ions from Aqueous Medium by Sawdust of Wood

Removal of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solution by sawdust of wood was investigated as function of time, pH, adsorbent concentration and adsorbate concentration and temperature. The amount of Cu (II) ions adsorbed onto sawdust increased with the increase in reaction time, concentration and temperature. Kinetic studies showed that adsorption process followed first order kinetic model. Langmuir and freundlich equations were applied to the observed data, which showed that Cu (II) ions adsorption obeys both langmuir and freudlich isotherms. Thermodynamics parameters such DHO, DSO  and DGO were also estimated which suggested that the adsorption of Cu (II) ions on sawdust of wood was an endothermic and spontaneous processread more


Potable Water Quantity Characteristics of the Urban Areas of Peshawar (Pakistan) Part 2: Well Water

Quantity characteristics of 30 samples collected from dug wells, open wells and hand pumps of some urban and adjoining Areas of Peshawar (Pakistan) were chemically evaluated and results were compared with WHO potable water quantity standards. The studies indicate an increasing trend in magnesium content than calcium. These studies reveal that magnesium in 18 out of 30 samples is higher than calcium as compared to the previously reported results, where quantity characteristics of the tube well waters were undertaken. Tube well waters reported in part-1 of the studies were found to be less polluted compared to the well water in the present studies. These is due to fact that wells are shallow (<40 feet) compared to tube wells (>350 feet) and are therefore more vulnerable to pollution than tube wells. The general public opinion about the water quality has also been discussed.  read more


Electroless Nickel Plating on ABS Plastics from Nickel Chloride and Nickel Sulfate Baths

Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel plating on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effect of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentrations on the electoless nickel chloride nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40 g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85OC and density of Be for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer, it was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath.read more


Static Light Scattering of Polystyrene in Good solvents : Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and Carbontetrachloride (CCI4)

Equilibrium and thermodynamics Properties of polystyrene of narrow molecular weight distribution in two chemically distinct good solvents i.e. THF and CCI4 were carried out using static light scattering in dilute solution at 25OC. the molecular weight Mw and radius of gyration Rg for all samples in the range qRp < 1 and qRp 0-2 were obtained using different methods via Zimm, Berry square root and Fujita. It was observed that the molecular weight obtained for the samples 20 x 106  in given solvent by the three graphical procedures are comparable to each other. However, the Rg estimated by the fajita’s are the highest further, it was observed that in case of very high molecular weights (20 x106) samples even the fajita’s method underestimates Rg . this was attributed to the possibility that the chain expansion with increase in molecules with increase the molecular weight is not as uniform as predicted by theory. The second virial coefficients A2 , estimated by Berry square root method were in reasonable agreement with the literature values.read more


Study the Route of Entrance of Toxic Metals in the Arabian Sea

Analysis of trace metals Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn and Hg was conducted in the industrial wastewater at different location (Korangi Industrial Area stream and SITE stream) using standard methods for analysis. Some physiochemical parameters like pH, phosphate, total Dissolved solids, BOD and COD were also investigated. It was found that the toxic contents are more in the stream flowing along SITE, where as the Korangi industrial Area stream contains fewer amounts of  toxic metals the maximum levels of Pb was observed (0.9mg/L) in Korangi stream and mercury was found (0.225mg/L) in SITE> chromium found under the permissible range (0.960 mg/L) in Korangi and (0.915 mg/L) in SITE> these two streams are also one of found to bringing of a lot of toxic substance along with water all two streams are one of major sources of toxic substances for the Arabian sea especially for Karachi costal area.read more


To Study the Toxic Effect of Ion Chelatore on Pasteurelis multocoda

The aim of our research to check the effect of metal ion chelators non the growth of Pasteurelis multocoda,either they can enhance or inhibited the growth. The organism growth more rapidly when they were treated with the metals ions chelators. The chelators used were salicyhydroxamic acid, oxine and EDTA.read more


Acute toxicity of Copper Cadmium and their Mixture to Tilipa (Oreochromis mossambicus)

Acute toxicity of copper and cadmium including median lathal concentration LC50 for tilapia species Oreochromis mossambicus). In static condition for a definite period of exposure was determined. The LC50 for 24 hours exposure to Cd and Cu and their mixture estimated graphically was found to be 1 mg, 2mg and 3mg/1, respectively. The LC50 of tolipia exposed for 72 hours exposure was found to be 2 mg/l. unlikely for Cu prolong exposure the LC50 values decreased proportionally with the exposure period. The uptake amount of metals was found to increase gradually with exposure concentration as well as period of exposure but accumulation did not follow the same pattern. The accumulated amounts were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy.read more


Determination of Phenol in Locally Grown Fruits and Vegetables by Spectrophotometric Method.

Spectrophotometric method for the determination of phenol in the sample of locally fruits apple, pear, sweet orange and vegetable were squeezed, filtered and decolorized with charcoal. The antipyrite dye formed by reaction between phenol and 4-aminoantipyrite was analyzed. The calibration graphs were prepared in the range of 0.5 to 4 ppm of phenol. Phenol in apple, pear and sweet orange was found to be in the range of 1-1.2 ppm and in radish was found to be 0.5 ppm. Possible sources of organic Pollutant were pointed out and were discussed. Limit of detection of the method was investigated and was found to be 0.2smg/ml.read more


Spectrophotometric Determination of Lorazepan with Alizarin Sulphonic Acid in Pure and Pharmaceutical Preparations

Lorazapam reacts with alizarin sulphonic acid (sodium salt) to give a pink colored complex, after heating at 50oC for 15S having maximum absorbance at 530 nm. The reaction is selective for lorazepam with 0.01mg/10 ml as visual limit of quantization and provides a basis for a new spectrometric determination the reaction obeys beer’s law from 0. 01to 3 mg/10 ml of lorazepam and the relative standard deviation is 0.68%. the quantative assessments of tolerable amounts of other drugs not interfering are also studied.read more