A Study on Grafting of Acrylonitrile onto Bleached Sulphonated Jute-cotton Blended Fabric

A study  of  the  graft copolymerization  of acrylonitrile  into  bleached sulphonated jute-cotton    blended   fabric,    using  KMnO4/H2SO4 redox-initiator system  has   been   made.The polymerization     reaction  was   studied   with  the   respect  to   graft  yield,   graft   efficiency  and homopolymer.   Optimization  of varios    parameter  of grafting  viz.  time,  temperature, initiator, sulphuric    acid   and  monomer  concentration was  carried   out.  Grafting   has  improved  the light   fastness of bleached sulphonated jute-cotton    blended  fabric   with basic dyes.   More  than  13.5%  graft yield could be achieved in the present investigation. read more


Effect of Electrolyte Concentration and Temperature on CMC of Surfactants

The relation for the free energy of micellization in      case of ionic a well    a nonionic  safectants has     been updated by including    the  effect of ionic strength and  the size  of the  ions  used.  For   the verification of  the  final  relation and  to  compare  the results  one  gets through  differed     techniques   like    viscometry,   light    absorption\transmission,      surface   tension   and  conductance  have   been  employed   to  determine   critical  micelles   concentration (CMC)   of  sodium dodeoyl sulphate   and  sodium tetradeoyl adphde    safactanta   It is  found  that when the electrolyte   concentration is  very  low  the  viscometry does not give   reliable   results  where   a light     absorption/transmission    does.    The   surface    tension   measurement   and   conductance  measurement  give   reliable   and   reproducible    results  at   any   electrolyte concentration     and temperature.   A new   way  of interpretation of conductivity data has also been proposed, through  which  one  can  get  better remits  even  in  the presence  of high   ionic strength. The  results no  obtained  show   the   decrease  in  CMC    with  the   increase  in   electrolytes   concentration andapproaches   to a  constant value.   This decrease  is in the order of Na+>K+> Li+     . This trend isexplained    in  terms  of change   in  shape  of   the micelles,  specific    absorption of electrolytes, variation in  double   layer thickness  and hence variation in  the free  energy  of the  system and hydrodynamic    radius  of   the  ions  used.  It  is  also   found  that the  CMC   decreases    with  the  increase  in   temperature  of  the  system,    which  is   explained  in  terms   of  solubility   of  thesurfactants, change in shape of the micelles    and free  energy of the system with the temperature.  Further these variation are in accordance with the equation derived by us. read more


Water Irrigation Chemistry of Underground Water in Malir Valley, Karachi (pakistan)

Ground   water samples  from existing   wells  in  different agricultural farms  of Malir Valley Karachi (Pakistan) were   collected and analyzed   for  chemical constituents viz.  Na,  K,  Ca,  Mg,   CO3,  HCO3, C1 and  SO4 along   with -their physical properties.  The values  of total  dissolved  salts  (TDSL    odium adsorption   ratio (SAR),   resident   sodium  carbonate  (RSC)   and  exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP)   of the samples  were then calculated  to investigate their   Irrigation chemistry.  Inspire of high values of TDS, 70,90   and  100% samples  were found  to be   safe with respect to their SAR, ESP & RSC values respectively.     Sodium percent (Na%) of 30%   samples  was found  to be good where 50%  were in permissible range from irrigation point of  view.  The overall results show that the underground   water of Malir Valley   can suitably be med  for irrigation purpose. read more


Adsorption Studies of Silver (+1) on Bentonite U.

Adsorption of    silver   on  bentonite  has    been  studied   by  using   batch-technique,   Distribution Co-officient (Kis)   were determined  for bentonite silver solution system  in natural water  as  a faction    of contact time,pH, adsorbent &  adsorbate concentration and  temperature.    Adsorption     data  have  been   interpreted in   terms  of  Freundlich   and  Langmuir   equations.    Thermodynamics   parameters    for    the    adsorption    have    been determined    at    three    temperatures. The value of DH* =       -3.62 KJ/mol  and DG* =  3.61 KJ/mol  at 298K suggests  that    the adsorption  of silver  on  bentonite is an  exothermic percent   De desorption   studies at  low    given  silver  loading  on  bentonite shows  that significant %age   d   the  element is irreversiblyadsorbed  due  to  the fixation of the  silver by isomophous replacement  in  the crystal lattice of    the adssorbent.read more


Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon Fibre/Filament (ACF) from Indigenous Cellulosic Precursors

Activated carbon fibre  /  filament (ACF)  has  been prepared  from different  cellulonic precursors    by chemical   activation  method,   using zinc   chloride   and   phosphoric   acid   as   activating agents.   It has  been found  that adsorptivity capacity  of zinc chloride  activated  ACF  produces  was  better than phosphoric acid  activated ions.  It has also been  inferred that all  ACF  products   have   microporous   structure  having   absence   of meso  and   macropores.   An   ACF  product   of  reasonable  activity  and  having good  strength characteristics  may  be   prepared  by  zinc chloride activation of bleached cotton cloth.read more


Role of Activators in Bright Chrome Electroplating

Role  of activators   such  a   sodium silicofluoride and sulfuric acid   in bright chrome electroplating   was  investigated using    technical  grade  chromic  acid,  CrO3, containing  0.15% sulfate,   maximum. It  was  found  that  beth comprising   CrO3  300-350         Na2SiF6   2-3  g/L, H2SO4  1-2  ml/L  at temperature  30-35 C and  current density   8-10 A/dm2    can be  recommended  as a self one for bright chrome plating.read more


Textile Effluents and Their Contribution Towards Aquatic Pollution in the Kabul River (pakistan)

Textile affluent   is  one of the major   sources  of pollution  in the  Kabul  River at the North-West  Frontier  Province  of  Pakistan.  Effluent  sample   from  individual   processes of  a    textile  mill  at  Now where   were  chemically  evaluated  for   organic strength,  total solids,   trace    toxic  metals  and  other common pollutants.  the  results  have shown  different parameters  to  be    in   the  range;   temperature  32-130'C,   pH   8.05-11.38,  electrical   conductivity  400-16160  µ    mhos/cm. Total solid,   which  were measured  g 105°C,    180°C  and  550°C  were respectively  in    the  range  of  460-18080 mg/l,  250-1613 mg/l  and  240-14460 mg/l.    Total dissolved  solids   at    105 C,  180°C  and 550°C  were  found  in the range  of 360-1506 mg/l, .220-13430 mg/l and 210-    12740  mg\l respectively. Whereas, total suspended   solids  at  these temperatures were  found  to    be   in  the  range  of  100-3020  mg/l,  30-1670 mg/l   and  3(k1030 mg/l   respectively. Chemical    oxygen  demand   was  in  the  range  of  1500-4160 mg  O2/L   Total hardness  was   70-290 mg/1,    calcium   0-60  mg/l,  magnesium  50-230  mg/1, medium  40-3286 mg/l,  potassium  12-236  mg/l,    chloride   29-1918  mg/l,  sulphate 529-2991 mg/l   and  sulphide  608-1832  mg/l.     Trace  toxic    metals  were  found  in the  ranges; copper 0.04-0.17 mg/l,   cadmium 0-0.16 mg/l,  ciromium  0.5-    0.8 mg/l, nickel 04.04 mg\l, lead 0.07-0.14 and manganese 0.01-0.11 mg/l.   It   was    concluded   that   the  textile   industry  under     study   discharges   various   pollutants  in    concentratiom that are  above  the permissible  limits laid down by the    national and  international    standards.   The  textile   effluents  contain  toxic  metals,   high  oxygen  demanding   wastes   and    appreciable   among    of sulphide.   this   study  also  indicates    the  presence  and  the  deleterious    effects   of   industrial  pollutants   in   general  and   sulphide    in  particular,   as   alarmingly  high    concentration of sulphide   (608  times higher   than the permissible   limit) being discharged    into    Kabul    River.   this   could   logically   be   linked   with   the  substantial   decrease   in  fish   crop    specifically   at   and   down-stream   of  the   discharging   point,  and   overall   reduction in   fish   population in the Kabul River.read more


Phosphate Adsorption from Soil

   Phosphate  adsorption  from  soil   as    a   function  of  pH   and   temperature,  using electrolyte   and  ion exchange  resin methods, ha   been  studied.  The resin  method is  found to  be  the most suitable  method for the extraction of phosphate from the soil. Low pH   values and high temperature    was  observed  to enhance  the phosphate adsorption which  is  due  to  an increase  in  the solubility of calcium phosphate.read more


Spectrophotomertric Determination of Mianserin in Pure and Pharmaceutical Preparations

Mianserin reacts with alizarin sulfonic acid (sodium Salt)   to give  a reddish yellow colour having maximum  absorbance at  520 nm.  The  reaction is specific  for Mianserin with  1   µg/10  ml  as  visual  limit  of quantization, and provides  a   basis for  a  new spectrophotometric  determination. The  colour  reaction  obeys  Beer's  Law   from  0.001 µg   to  3.5  µg/10   ml  of  Mianserin.  De   relative standard    deviation is <    0.2%. The method is successfully applied    to  pure  and pharmaceutical  dosage  forms  of Mianserin.  The quantitative assessment of tolerable limits of other drugs not interfering are also studied.read more


Indirect Determination of Vitamin K3 Using 2,4,6-tri.s(2'-Pyridyl)-S-Triazine by Spectrophotometeric and Flow Injection Techniques

Vitamin  K3 (menadione  sodium hydrogen   sulphite)   was   indirectly determined by the reduction  of the    iron (III)  to iron(II)    and  an intense  blue  color formation by  the  reaction  of iron(II)     and   2,4,642'-pyridyl)-e4riazine   (TFTZ).   The  color   development     was    monitoredspectrophotometerically  at 595  ma with  linear calibration range  with  2-10 µg/mi  of vitamin K3 The method  was  used  for the  determination of vitamin K3 in a pharmachemical preparation   A single    lined  flow injection   manifold  was  also examined. A large   excess  of iron(III) containing  different concentration    of vitamin K    was  run, on the line and  a constant amount of TPTZ was  injected through    the injector. The peak height  was proportional  to concentration between  2-10  µg/ml vitamin K3.read more